METONYMY; or, CHANGE OF NOUN.                                                                            pg. 538
The change of one noun for another related noun.

From “Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible” by E. W. Bullinger,
(Public Domain) (pg. 538-539)  pages 538608 Adapted for website compatibility.

Me-ton-y-my. Sometimes pronounced Met-o-nym-y.
Greek Μετωνυμία, from  μετά (meta), indicating change,
and  ὄνομα (onoma), a name; or, in grammar, a noun.
[See A Greek-English Lexicon by Liddell, Henry George, 1811-1898Scott, Robert, 1811 -1887; μετά pg. 946 G. VIII; ὄνομα pg. 1056]

Metonymy is a figure by which one name or noun is used instead of another,
to which it stands in a certain relation.

The change is in the noun, and only in a verb as connected with the action
proceeding from it.

The names of persons are put by Metonymy for something which stands in
a special relation to them. Thus we speak of “a stanhope” (carriage), from
the Hon. Mr. Stanhope; “a brougham,” from Lord Brougham; “boycotting,”
from Capt. Boycott; a “blanket,” “negus,” a “spencer,” a “d’oyley,” etc.,
from the respective inventors.

Thus it will be seen that Metonymy is not founded on resemblance,
but on relation.

When we say that a person writes “a bad hand,” we do not mean a hand,
but we use the noun “hand” for the characters which it writes.

Metonymy is of four kinds: viz.,
of the Cause,
of the Effect,
of the Subject, and
of the Adjunct.

I.    Metonymy of the Cause is when the cause is put for the effect:
i.e., when the doer is put for the thing done; or, the instrument for that which is effected; or, where the action is put for the effect produced by the action.

II.   Metonymy of the Effect is the opposite of the above:
when the effect is put for the cause.

III. Metonymy of the Subject is when the subject is put for something pertaining
to it: as the possessor for the possessed; the thing signified for the sign.

IV. Metonymy of the Adjunct, on the contrary, is when that which pertains
to anything is put for the thing itself.

Some grammarians have added a fifth Metonymy,
where the antecedent is put for the consequent;
but it really belongs to Metonymy of the Cause.

                                                                                                                                                                             pg. 539

The following is the complete outline of the figure now to be treated of: —


.      I. Of the Cause.

.          i.   The person acting for the thing done.

.          ii.  The instrument for the thing effected.

        iii. The thing or action for the thing produced by it.

.          iv. The material for the thing made from or of it.


.    II. Of the Effect.

.          i.   The action or effect for the person producing it.

.          ii.  The thing effected for the instrument or organic cause of it.

.          iii. The effect for the thing or action causing it.

.          iv. The thing made for the material from which it is made or produced.

Thanks go to Blue Letter Bible and Internet Archive and
The Cornell University Library for providing public domain material.

From “Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible” by E. W. Bullinger,
(Public Domain) pages (pgs. 538-539)  pages 538608.
Adapted for website compatibility.
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