The repetition of the word “and” at the beginning of successive clauses.
Pol’-y-syn -de-ton. Greek, πολυσύνδετον, from πολύς (polūs), many, and συνδετόν (syndeton), bound together; hence, in grammar, it means
a conjunction (from
σύν (syn) and δεῖν (dein), to bind).
The word, therefore, means
much bound together or many conjunctions.

It is called also POLYSYNTHETON, from τίθήμι (titheemi), to put or place.
many puttings: i.e., of the same word—in this case of the word “and.”

The English name for the Figure will, therefore, be MANY-ANDS.

Polysyndeton is merely one special form of Anaphora (q.v.): i.e., it is a repetition
of the same word at the beginning of successive sentences: but this is always one special word “and”.

To understand the full significance and use of Polysyndeton, the student must consider along with it the opposite Figure Asyndeton (the same word syndeton with “a” prefixed, meaning no, instead of “poly”, meaning many).
A-syn-de-ton, i.e.
, NO-ANDS (page 137).

The two Figures form a pair, and should be studied together.

The Laws of Grammar decide for us how the conjunction “and” should be used.
If we are enumerating a number of things, we (by usage) place the conjunction immediately before the last. This is the cold law, which leaves what we say without
any special emphasis. But this law may be legitimately broken in two different ways
for the sake of emphasis. In order to attract the attention of the hearer or reader, we may either use NO ANDS, or we may use MANY ANDS. Man may use these figures, however, without sufficient reason, and unwisely: but the Holy Spirit ever uses words in all perfection, and it behoves us carefully to note whatever He thus calls our attention to.

When He uses “No-ands,” He does not ask us to stop and consider the various particulars which are enumerated, but to hasten on to some grand climax. In this case that climax which we read at the end, is the all-important matter on which the greatest emphasis is to be placed.

When He uses “many-ands,” there is never any climax at the end. Instead of hurrying us on, breathlessly, to reach the important conclusion; we are asked to stop at each point, to weigh each matter that is presented to us, and to consider each particular that is thus added and emphasized.

One illustration of each will make this quite clear. We have an example of both in one chapter (Luke 14.), and, strange to say, in connection with precisely the same four words. In verse 13, we have Asyndeton (no-ands): and in verse 21, Polysyndeton (many-ands). In the former case (Asyndeton), we are not asked to consider the various classes of persons mentioned, but we are hastened on to the important and weighty conclusion:

Verse 13, 14 “When thou makest a feast, call the poor,
—the maimed,
—the lame,
—the blind:
and thou shalt be blessed.”

In other words, we are taught that, though we are not obliged to make a feast at all,
yet, even if we do, we can call whom we please: but, if we call such persons as are here described, there is a great blessing attached: hence, we are hurried over the enumeration of these classes to be told of this blessing. And, even then, it really does not matter much whether they are actually blind or lame, etc. The point is they must not be able to return it.

On the other hand, the Master’s servant is commanded to “bring in” such persons to the Lord’s feast, as a matter of simple obedience: and when he has done this, he has done no more than his duty, and is at the best, but an “unprofitable servant.” Hence, by the use of this figure of Polysyndeton in verse 21, we are not hurried onto any climax at the end, but we are detained at each step, and are thus asked to consider carefully what is taught us by the mention of each of these various classes:

— “Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city,
and bring in hither the poor (i.e., those whom no one would think of inviting, but who would welcome the invitation); (15:1. Matt. 20:31):
—“the poor” who could not afford to buy “a piece of ground” (verse 18), or “ five yoke of oxen” (verse 19).
and the maimed (i.e., those who would be most unlikely to be able to say, “I have married a wife” (verse 20),
and the halt (
χωλούς, as in verse 13, where it is translated “lame”: i.e., those who could not “go” to use the oxen, or to “prove them,” at the plough, verse 19),
and the blind (i.e., those who could not say, “I must needs go and see” the piece of land which I have bought, verse 18).

Here, by this figure, instead of being hurried forward to a weighty conclusion we are led gently backward by each “and” to think of these four classes, and to contrast them with those whom the Lord had just described in the preceding parable as making excuses.

These two illustrations will prepare us for the consideration of the two figures separately, and enable us to understand them.

We consider here only the illustrations of Polysyndeton. The examples of Asyndeton will be found under that figure (pages 137-148), which being Elliptical, i.e., characterised by the omission of the word “and” has been placed under the First Division, Figures of Omission.

Gen. 8:22—Here the completeness of the covenant and the fulness of the blessing, and the certainty of the Divine promise, is set forth in a double four-fold description: —
“While the earth remaineth,
seedtime and harvest,
and cold and heat,
and summer and winter,
and day and night, shall not cease.”

Gen. 19:12—
“And the men said unto Lot
Hast thou here any beside?
and thy sons,
and thy daughters,
and whatsoever thou hast in the city, and bring them out of this place.”
See also verses 16, 19; and verse 17 for Asyndeton.

Gen. 22:9, 11—The solemnity and deliberation of Abraham’s actions is emphasised,
and each is marked off from the other by this figure: —
and they came to the place which God had told him of;
and Abraham built an altar there,
and laid the wood in order,
and bound Isaac his son,
and laid him on the altar upon the wood:
and Abraham stretched forth his hand:
and took the knife to slay his son:
and the angel of the Lord,” etc.

Gen. 25:34—
“Then Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of lentiles;
and he did eat and drink,
and rose up,
and went his way:
And Esau despised his birthright.”

Gen. 25:34—
“Then Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of lentiles;
and he did eat and drink,
and rose up,
and went his way:
And Esau despised his birthright.”
Here our attention is drawn to the deliberateness of Esau’s action.
There is no haste in the words, as there was none in Esau’s deed.
Each part of it is minutely pointed out, and dwelt upon, as showing that Esau did not fall under some sudden temptation, but that he deliberately and willfully “despised his birthright.”  

(see Heb. 12:16, 17)


Gen. 43:8—This is shown more clearly in the Hebrew; it is partly hidden in the A.V.,
to suit the English idiom. Here, the
Polysyndeton is used to heighten the effect of Judah’s appeal to his father to let them all depart and procure the food they so greatly needed.
The Hebrew reads: —
“And Judah said unto Israel, his father, Send the lad with me,
and we will get up,
and we will go,
and we shall live,
and so we shall not die;
also we,
also thou,
also our households.”

Ex. 1:7—Here the figure is employed in order to impress us with the marvellous increase of Israel by the Divine blessing.
     (See Psa. 105:24 ; 107:33)
and the children of Israel were fruitful,
and increased abundantly,
and multiplied,
and waxed exceeding great,
and the land was filled with them.”

Josh. 7:11—Jehovah shows to Joshua (and to us) the greatness of Achan’s sin,
by bringing out emphatically all the acts which formed part of it.
The Hebrew reads: —
Israel hath sinned,
and they have also transgressed my covenant, which I commanded them;
and (וְגַם), vegam, they have also taken of the accursed thing,
and have also stolen,
and have dissembled also,
and they have also put it among their own stuff.”
Five times we have
וְגַם (vegam), and also, in this verse.

Josh. 7:24—Here, to show the awful solemnity of the judgment executed upon Achan, and the magnitude of his sin, twelve times we have the conjunction, eleven of the times with (אֶָת(וְאֶת .
And Joshua,
and all Israel with him, took Achan the son of Zerah,
and the silver,
and the garment,
and the wedge of gold,
and his sons,
and his daughters,
and his oxen,
and his asses,
and his sheep,
and his tent,
and all that he had:
and they brought them unto the valley of Achor.”

1 Sam. 17:34-36—Here David enhances the importance of what he tells King Saul,
by bringing out graphically each detail of that which makes him a type of the Good Shepherd: —
“And David said unto Saul, Thy servant kept his father’s sheep
and there came a lion and a bear,
and took a lamb out of the flock:
and I went out after him and smote him,
and delivered it out of his mouth:
and when he arose against me, I caught him by his beard,
and smote him,
and slew him. Thy servant slew
both (
ַם) the lion,
and (
ַם) the bear.
and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, etc.”

2 Kings 2:12, 14—
“And he took hold of his own clothes,
and rent them in two pieces:
and he took up (he took up also) the mantle of Elijah that fell from him,
and went back,
and stood by the bank of Jordan;
and he took the mantle of Elijah that fell from him,
and smote the waters,
and said. Where is the Lord God of Elijah?
and when he also had smitten the waters, they parted hither and thither,
and Elisha went over.”

All this to show us the importance, not of any great climax,
but of each part of that wondrous miracle.

2 Kings 5:26—In the words of Elisha to Gehazi on his return from Naaman, he brings out by the use of this figure all that was in Gehazi’s heart; showing that he knew how Gehazi had already planned and arranged how he should spend and lay out the money which he had asked of Naaman.
Is it a time to receive money,
and to receive garments,
and oliveyards,
and vineyards,
and sheep,
and oxen,
and menservants,
and maidservants?”

 1 Chron. 29:11-13—Here the greatness and the goodness of Jehovah is set forth in David’s Thanksgiving.
The whole structure* of this thanksgiving is as follows: —
* For these structures see under Correspondence below.


     A / a / 10. David blessing Jehovah,
b / 10. Jehovah’s eternity.
B / 11. Jehovah’s greatness “above all.”
B / 12. Jehovah’s goodness “unto all.”
A / a / 13. David blessing Jehovah,
b / 14, 15. David’s mortality.


     C / 16. The House and its provision,
.           D / 17. “I give” “mine heart.” (Time past and present).
.           D
/ 17-19. Prepare their heart to give. (Time to come).
C / 19. The house and its provision.

The figure occurs in B and B:—

“Thine, O Lord, is the greatness (Psa. 145:3),
and the power (verse 12 and Psa. 21:13)
and the glory (beauty, verse 13. Psa. 96:6),
and the victory (lustre, 1 Sam. 15:29),
and the majesty (Psa. 21:6); for all that is in the heaven
and in the earth (is thine):*
      Thine is the Kingdom, O Lord,
and thou art exalted as head above all,
and the riches                                     } (The figure is lost by saying
and the honour                                  } “both riches and honour.”)
      come of thee,
and thou reignest over all;
and in thine hand is power and might;
and in thine hand it is to make great,
and to give strength unto all:
and now, our God, (not “Now therefore”) we thank thee,
and praise thy glorious name!”
*Or, omitting the italics “because of all in the heavens and in the earth.”

Psa. 107:35-37—Here, to enhance the blessings which Jehovah bestows upon His people they are set forth with such distinctness that we are asked to dwell upon each one that goes to make up the whole:
He turneth the wilderness into a standing water,
and dry ground into watersprings,
and there he maketh the hungry to dwell, that they may prepare a city for habitation;
and sow the fields,
and plant vineyards, which may yield fruits of increase.”

Isa. 2:11-19—Here the figure is employed to set forth the completeness of the manner in which Jehovah will “shake terribly the earth”
(19, 21). There is another figure employed (see under
Synonymia ): and this,
with the structure, shows us the importance and solemnity of the whole passage.
It commences with chap. 2, and ends with chap. 4. Thus: —

     A / 2:1-5. Promise.
B / 2:6-22 Threatening of judgment (general).
B / 3-4:1 Threatening of punishment (particular).
A / 4:2-6. Promise.

.         Then these members may be expanded thus: —
                             A. The Promise 2:1-5
    A / C / 2:1,2. Zion, its exaltation. All people flowing unto it.
D / 3.- What they say: “Come ye, . . we will walk, etc.”
.        / C / -3, 4. Zion, its rule. The word going out from it.
D / 5. What the people say: “Come ye, . . let us walk, etc.”

Then the second member B, with which we have to do (the figure Polysyndeton marking it and stamping it as a whole), may be expanded, thus: —

                                                B. Threatening of judgment (general), 2:6-22.
                                                     (With special reference to men,)*

.                                                 * In B (3-4:1) the reference is specially to women.
A (4:2-6) the reference is: —

.                                                             a / 2. General.
.                                                                     b / 3. To men.
b / 4. To women.
a/ 6. General.

     E / F / 6.- Jehovah ceasing from His People.
.              / G / -6-9 Reason. Because they exalt themselves before God, and humble themselves
.                                                    before their idols.
/ G / 10-21 Judgment. The People humbled, and Jehovah alone exalted.
Idols abolished.
/ F / 22 “Cease ye from man,” &c.


           Once more, the member G may be expanded, thus:—
G. The Judgment (2:10-21)

     G / H1 / a / 10.- Concealment. “Go to the rock,” etc.
b / -10. Reason: “For fear of the Lord,” etc.
J / c / 11. Man abased. Jehovah exalted
                                            / d / 12-16. High things brought low by
                                     / c / 17. Man abased. Jehovah exalted      } Jehovah
d / 18. Idols utterly abolished          
         / H2 / a / 19.- Concealment. “They shall go to the rocks,” etc.
                         / b / -19. Reason: “For fear of the Lord,” etc.
/ 20.- Idols cast away by man.
         / H3 / a / 21.- Concealment, “to go into the clefts of the rocks.”
β / – 21. Reason: “For fear of the Lord,” etc.

We may note in passing that in “J” we have Jehovah and Idols:
while in “
J” we have Man and his Idols.

Now, we are prepared to see how the judgment executed by Jehovah in J
(verses 11-18) is further emphasized by the figure of Polysyndeton; as it is still
further marked and emphasized by the figure of
Synonymia (q.v.):—

      J / c / 11. The lofty looks of man shall be humbled,
             and the haughtiness of men shall be bowed down,           } MAN
.               and the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day.
d / 12-16. For the day of the Lord*
of hosts shall be upon every
one [or thing] that is proud
and lofty, and upon every one [thing]
                              that is lifted up;
and he shall be brought low:                               } Jehovah’s
and upon all the cedars of Lebanon                        judgement
that are high and lifted up,                                    on
and upon all the oaks of Bashan,                       } GOD’S WORKS
and upon all the high mountains,                            (seven members).
                   and upon all the hills that are lifted up,
and upon every high tower,                                      Jehovah’s
and upon every fenced wall,                                 }      judgement
and upon all the ships of Tarshish,                              on
and upon all pleasant pictures.                                       MAN’S WORKS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     (four)
/ c / 17.  And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down,
and the haughtiness of men shall be made low;                      } MAN.
and the Lord alone
                              shall be exalted in that day.
.     / d / 18.  And the Idols, he shall utterly abolish.              } Jehovah’s judgement on man’s works.
*This is the first mention of “the Day of the Lord.” For the significance of this, see Number in Scripture by the same author and publisher.

Isa. 3:17-4:1—Here, we have, in these few verses, the “many ands” marking the minuteness of the Lord’s judgment on the daughters of Zion.

These verses form one member (B) of the larger structure (see above),
which may be expanded, as follows: —

                         B. 3-4:1 Threatening of judgment (Particular).
B / e / 3:1-7. Threatening. What Jehovah will “take away” from Jerusalem and from Judah.
f / 8-9-. Sin. Tongue, doings, countenance.
/ e / -9-11. Threatening. “Woe, woe.”
             f / 12. Sin. Weak and oppressive rulers (4, 4).
/ ε / 13-15. Threatening. Jehovah will judge and rule.
             ϕ / 16. Sin. Feminine haughtiness.
/η / 17-4:1. Threatening. What Jehovah will “take away” from the daughters of Zion.

Here, in the last member η ( 3:174:1), we have twenty-six “ands,” which the reader can notice for himself.

Isa. 37:37—Here, to enhance the overthrow of Sennacherib’s army, and to show how completely Jerusalem was delivered from the siege which he made against it, we read: —
“So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed,
and went,
and returned,
and dwelt at Ninevah.”

Jer. 31:28—Here the figure emphasises both the “scattering” and the “gathering “ of Israel: —
And it shall come to pass, that, like as I have watched over them to pluck up,
and to break down,
and to throw down,
and to destroy,
and to afflict; so will I watch over them, to build
and to plant, saith the Lord.”

Hag. 1:11—To enhance the description of the troubles which had fallen upon Israel,
a nine-fold “and” is employed
(nine being the number of judgment)*: —

And I called for a drought upon the land,
and upon the mountains,
and upon the corn,
and upon the new wine,
and upon the oil,
and upon that which the ground bringeth forth,
and upon men,
and upon cattle,
and upon all the labour of the hands.”
 see Number in Scripture, by the same author and publisher.

Matt. 7:25—
Here the perfect security of the “wise man,” who hears the sayings of Jesus, and
is likened unto a man who built his house upon a rock, is emphasized by a five-fold “and” (five being the number of grace).

And the rain descended (on the roof),
and the floods came (at the foundations),
and the winds blew (at the sides),
and beat upon that house:
and it fell not.”

While, on the other hand, in verse 27, the insecurity of the “foolish man,” who hears, but does not, the sayings of Jesus, is set forth by a six-fold “and” (six being the number of man and of human independence and imperfection:—

Matt. 24:29-31—Here, to emphasize the wondrous events of the day of the Lord,
and the order of them, the figure is used.

“Immediately after the tribulation of those days The sun shall be darkened,
and the moon shall not give her light,
and the stars shall fall from heaven,
and the powers* of the heavens shall be shaken,
and then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven:
and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn,
and they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory,
and he shall send his angels with a trumpet and a great sound (marg.),
and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds,* from one end of heaven to the other.”

* See under Catachreesis.
See under Idiom and Synecdoche.
See under Hendiadys.


This important passage describes the events which shall succeed “immediately after” the great tribulation

( which was the subject of Old Testament prophecy. See Psa. 9:9; 10:1. Jer. 30:7.
Joel 2:11, 31. Amos 5:18. Zeph. 1:14, etc. Rev. 6:17):
so that there is, therefore, no interval for a millennium of peace and blessedness before the coming of the Lord.

This is the coming of the Lord with His saints (the Church), not His coming
for what will already have previously taken place before the Great Tribulation begins. The Second coming corresponds with the First Coming (so-called) in that the first part of it answers to His “coming forth” at Bethlehem (
Micah 5:2.), and the second part answers to the “cometh unto” at Jerusalem (Zech. 9:9), the latter being referred to in
2 Thess. 2:2, R.V., and the former revealed in 1 Thess. 4:16, 17.

Consequently his title, “The Son of Man,” agrees with the scope of the passage;
which has to do with dominion on the earth. While the elect can only be the elect of Israel
Deut. 30:4, (LXX.) Zech. 2:6, etc.).

Mark 3:31-35—Here each part of the instructive scene is emphasized to attract our attention: —
“There came then his brethren,
and his mother,
and standing without, sent unto him, calling him:
and the multitude sat about him,
and they said unto him. Behold thy mother
and thy brethren without seek for thee:
and he answered them, saying. Who is my mother, or my brethren?
and he looked round about on them which sat about him,
and said. Behold my mother,
and my brethren! For whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is my brother,
and my sister,
and mother.”

The scene which is thus emphasized is connected with verse 21 as appears from the structure of this whole passage.

*See under Metonomy (of the adjunct).
For what is meant by Structure see below under Correspondence.

Mark 3:21-35
.    A / a / 21-. Jesus’s kindred (margin),

.               / b /-21-. Their interference with him.

.                       / c /-21. Their disparagement of him.
.                              / d /22-. The Scribes’ first charge: “He hath a devil.”
                                   / e /-22. The Scribes’ second charge:
.                                                    “By the prince of the devils casteth he out devils.”
.    B                             / e / 23-27. His answer to the second charge.
.                              / d / 28, 29. His denunciation of the first charge.
A / a / 31-. Jesus’s kindred,
               / b / -31, 32. Their interference with Him,
                        /c / 33-35. His disparagement of them.

From this structure we learn that (1) the object of the visit, is explained in verses 21-31, and that (2) the reference of verse 28 is to the first charge of the Scribes—explaining what is called “the unpardonable sin”: and (3) that the “kindred” of verse 31 included his mother in the design and conspiracy.
* For these structures see below under Correspondence.

Luke 1:31, 32—Here the birth of the Lord Jesus is presented as it is in Isa. 9:6, 7,
with the “sufferings” overleaped, and the present season of His rejection not noticed. Our attention is called to all the wondrous details and separate parts of His glory, which, though thus linked together and connected with His birth, are not immediately consecutive.
And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb,
and bring forth a son,
and shalt call his name JESUS. He shall be great,
and shall be called the Son of the Highest:
and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David:
and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever;
and of his kingdom there shall be no end.”

It is Matt. 1:21, 23
, which refers to Isa. 7, and thus connects the King with the “sufferings”: while it is Luke, which refers to Isa. 9,
and thus connects “the Man” with the glory that shall follow.
See below under Rev. 12


Luke 7:11-18—Here, there is no climax, but we are asked to stop and dwell upon each additional circumstance, and see why it is mentioned, and what is its peculiar lesson for us: —
And it came to pass the day after, that he went into a city called Nain:
and many of his disciples went with him,
and much people. Now, when he came nigh to the gate of the city, behold,
there was a dead man carried out,
 the only son of his mother,
and she was a widow:
and much people of the city was with her:
and when the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her,
and said unto her, Weep not.
and he came and touched the bier:
and they that bare him stood still,
and he said. Young man, I say unto thee. Arise.
and he that was dead sat up,
and began to speak;
and he delivered him to his mother;
and there came a fear on all:
and they glorified God, saying, That a great prophet is risen up among us;
and, That God hath visited his people,
and this rumour of him went forth throughout all Judaea,
and throughout all the region round about;
and the disciples of John showed him of all these things.”

Here in these eight verses we have no less than twenty “ands,” each introducing a fact and a statement for our earnest consideration; each fraught with truth and teaching. The last, for example, is the reason why John sent his disciples to Jesus. This reason is not given in Matt. 11:2: which is thus explained. John was languishing in prison; and, when he heard that Jesus was raising the dead, he naturally wondered, if Jesus were “He that should come,” why he should be suffering in prison. See also Mark 3:1-6, the miracle of the man with the withered hand.


Luke 7:38—Here the woman’s devotion to the Lord is set forth in a gracious five-fold enumeration of the parts of which it was made up:
And stood at his feet behind him weeping,
and began to wash his feet with tears,
and did wipe them with the hairs of her head,
kissed his feet,

and anointed them with the ointment.”
Five “ands” in one verse!

Luke 10:27—Here a five-fold description is given in order to set forth that love which is “the fulfilling of the Law”: —
“Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart,
and with all thy soul,
and with all thy strength,
and with all thy mind:
and thy neighbour as thyself.”

It is sometimes said that we are never commanded to do that which is impossible.
But the truth is, the Law is given, and the perfection of this command is thus emphasized, in order to reveal and bring to light our own impotence, that we may thankfully cast ourselves on God’s omnipotence in that Saviour whom He has provided and


Luke 12:45, 46—Here, the sin of the wicked servant, who said,
“My lord delayeth his coming,” is set forth in a fourfold description: —
And shall begin to beat the menservants
and maidens,
and to eat and drink,
and to be drunken.”

Likewise his punishment is described in a fourfold manner: —
“The lord of that servant will come in a day when he looketh not for him,
and at an hour when he is not aware,
and will cut him in sunder,
and will appoint him his portion with the unbelievers.”

What a solemn fact it is that those who put off the hope of the Lord’s Coming till after the Tribulation are the ones who “smite” their fellow-servants; and this merely because they hope to be taken away before it comes!

Luke 15:20—Here, five particulars give the fulness of Divine grace in receiving the lost sinner: —
“When he was yet a great way off, his father saw him (eyes),
and had compassion (heart),
and ran (feet),
and fell on his neck (arms),
and kissed him” (lips).

There is no climax; but we are asked to dwell separately on these five aspects of grace, five (4 + 1) being the number which is symbolical of grace.*

* For the significance of this, see Number in Scripture by the same author and publisher.

Luke 15:22, 23—Here, we have an eight-fold enumeration of the gifts: showing the completeness of the blessings poured upon accepted one: —
“The father said to his servants,
Bring forth the best robe (but do more than that);
and put it on him;
and put a ring on his hand,
and shoes on his feet:
and bring hither the fatted calf,
and kill it;
and let us eat and be merry.”

John 10:27, 28—The riches of the grace bestowed upon the Lord’s people are thus enumerated and emphasized by the five-fold Polysyndeton:—
“ My sheep hear my voice,
and I know them,
and they follow me;
and I give unto them eternal life;
and they shall never* perish,
and not anyone shall pluck them out of my hand” (so Greek).

* See under Repeated Negation.


Acts. 1:8—“But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you:
and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem,
and in all Judea,
and in Samaria,
and unto the uttermost part of the earth.”

Thus is emphasized for us the fact that there is one message,
for all places and for all times.

“Preach the Gospel to every creature.”
Not “adapt the Gospel to every century.”

There are, here, three concentric circles.
(1) The innermost “Jerusalem and in all Judea,” the place of Religiousness where they professed to worship God and to read His word.
(2) “And in Samaria” which was the place of corrupt religion, for it is written of Samaria, “they feared the Lord, and served their own gods” (2 Kings 17:33).
(3) “And unto the uttermost part of the earth,” which was the place of no religion.

The witness for each was to be, not concerning Doctrines or Sacraments, or Rites and Ceremonies; but, concerning a PERSON!
“Ye shall be witnesses unto ME” —a crucified, risen, and coming Saviour. This is to be the witness: and this is the Gospel.

Rom. 8:29, 30—Here there is no climax or conclusion, but each great fact is to be weighed and duly considered.
We emend the A.V. only by putting the word “also” in the correct place*

“For whom he did foreknow, he did predestinate also . .
Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he called also:
and whom he called, them he justified also:
and whom he justified, them he glorified also.”

* See a pamphlet, entitled, Also: a Bible-Study on the use of the Word, by the same author and publisher.


Rom 9:4—Here the figure is used to impress us with the wonderful possessions and privileges of Israel,
“Who are Israelites; to whom pertaineth the adoption
sonship, Deut. 4:7, 33, 34),
and the glory (1 Sam. 4:21),
and the covenants (which precede the Law, Gal. 3:17),
and the giving of the Law,
and the service of God ( ἡ λατρεία, hee latreia, the [tabernacle] worship),
and the promises.”

1 Cor. 1:30—
“ But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom,
and righteousness,
and sanctification,
and redemption.”

The R.V. rendering does not alter the fact that these four wondrous things are distinctly separated, so that we are to study them,
each one by itself, and to learn the weighty lessons and the equal importance of each. It is Christ Jesus who is our righteousness;
and He is equally our sanctification, and in Him we are perfect and complete as to our standing before God; and in Him we now wait for Resurrection: i.e., the redemption of our bodies from the power of the grave (Rom. 8:23; Eph. 4:30).

Eph. 4:31 —
Let all bitterness (πικρία, pikria, the opposite of χρηστοί, chreestoi, verse 32, kind).
and wrath
( θυμός, thumos, the opposite of εὔσπλαγχνοι, eusplangchnoi tender-hearted),
and anger (ὀργή, orgee, the opposite of χαριζόμενοι, charizomenoi, forgiving),
and clamour,
and evil-speaking be put away from you with all malice.”

Here there is no climax; but in the next verse we have the opposite figure of Asyndeton, in which there are no “ands,” because there is a weighty conclusion at the end, to which we are hastened on.

* Be ye kind ( χρηστοί, chreestoi, the opposite of πικρία, pikria bitterness, verse 31),
—tender-hearted ( εὔσπλαγχνοι, eusplangchnoi, the opposite of θυμός, thumos, wrath),
—forgiving one another ( χαριζόμενοι, charizomenoi, the opposite of ὀργη, orgee, anger),
even as God for Christ’s sake hath forgiven you.”
* There is an “and” here in the A.V., but the Greek is δέ ,(de), but.
This is omitted by Lachmann, and put in the margin by Tregelles, Westcott and Hort
Lachmann has ὑμῖν (humin), us, which is put in the margin by Tr. W.H. and R.V.

Phil. 3:3—“For we are the circumcision, which worship God in the spirit,
and rejoice in Christ Jesus,
and have no confidence in the flesh.”

Thus the Spirit emphasises these three great fundamental principles of Christianity, and asks us to dwell upon each, noting the necessity of making all our worship wholly spiritual (John 4:23, 24); making the Lord Jesus the source of all our joy; and renouncing all attempts to work out a righteousness of our own.

1 Thess. 2:11—“ Ye know how we exhorted
and comforted
and charged every one of you, as a father doth his children.”
(See under Ellipsis, page 89).


 1 Tim. 1:5—Here, the figure points us to the true genealogy of charity, or love.
“Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart,
and of a good conscience,
and of faith unfeigned.”


If the faith be not right and unfeigned, then the “conscience” cannot be “good.” Conscience is the result of faith. It will condemn us in the doing of what we believe
to be wrong. It will approve the doing of what we believe to be right. Hence, the importance of a true “faith.”

If the conscience be not “good,” the heart cannot be pure; and if the heart be not pure, there can be no true, divine love.

2 Tim. 4:17, 18—Contrast this passage with the example of Asyndeton in 2 Tim 3: 10, 11. In that passage we are not detained over the manner of the Lord’s deliverance, but pointed to the great fact that He did deliver out of all. But here we have no such climax, and are asked to stop and consider each part of the wondrous deliverance.

“Notwithstanding, the Lord stood with me,
and strengthened me; that by me the preaching might be fully known,
and that all the Gentiles might hear:
and I was delivered* out of the mouth of the lion,
and the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work,
and will preserve me
unto his heavenly kingdom, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.”

* See under the figures of Ellipsis and Polyptoton.
See under the figure of Paregmenon.

Heb. 13:8.—“Jesus Christ the same yesterday,
and today,
and for ever.”

Jas. 1:24—Here the repeated “and” greatly emphasises what Bengel calls the
“hastiness joined with levity” of the natural man.
“For he beholdeth himself,
and goeth his way,
and straightway forgeteth what manner of man he was.”

Jas. 4:13—The Polysyndeton here, Bengel says, expresses the caprice of a mind
secure and indifferent—the will of a mind at ease.
“Go to now, ye that say, To-day or to-morrow we will go into such a city,
and continue there a year,
and buy and sell,
and get gain.”

2 Pet. 1:5-7— Here the sevenfold “and” points to all that is included in and follows the greatest gift of God (verse 3). Faith itself is God’s gift (Eph. 2:8), and therefore it is not added to anything. It is the “precious faith” which is “obtained” through the righteousness of God (verse 1).

And besides this ( καὶ αὐτό τοῦτο, kai auto touto, and for this very reason: ) i.e., because we have “precious faith” (verse 1), and are “partakers of the Divine nature” (verse 4), giving all diligence (see verse 15 and 3:14), add to your faith,
 ( τὴν ἀρετήν, teen areteen, courage);
and to virtue, knowledge;
and to knowledge, temperance (ἐγκράτεια, engkrateia, self-control, which is the fruit of knowledge. It means having self well reined in, the government of all the passions of the flesh);
and to temperance, patience (under afflictions or the sufferance of evil, as courage is used in encountering and averting evil);
and to patience, godliness (which is the only foundation of true patience or endurance. Apart from godliness it is stoicism, or mere indifference),
and to godliness, brotherly kindness (the love of your Christian brethren);
and to brotherly kindness, charity” (the love of all). (1 Pet.1:22).


Thus “faith” is the source out of which all virtues must spring, and “love” is the point to which all such virtues tend. Hence, “Whatsoever is not of faith is sin” (Rom. 14:23), and “the end of the commandment is love” (1 Tim. 1:5). Another important figure is combined here with Polysyndeton (see under Climax [which is repeated Anadiplosis]).


Rev. 1:11—Here the seven churches are to be separated as being equal in importance, and distinct in their position:—
“What thou seest write in a book and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia;
unto Ephesus,
and unto Smyrna,
and unto Pergamos,
and unto Thyatira,
and unto Sardis,
and unto Philadelphia,
and unto Laodicea.”


Rev. 3:17—Here, the figure is used to bring out the Laodicean condition of soul.
“Because thou sayest, I am rich
and increased with goods,
and have need of nothing;
and knowest not that thou art wretched,
and miserable,
and poor,
and blind,
and naked.”

Rev. 6:15—Here, to show the universality of the fear which will be manifested when “the great day of his wrath is come”—all classes of society are named and stated with
all formality in order to impress our minds:—

and the kings of the earth,
and the great men,
and the rich men,
and the chief captains,
and the mighty men,
and every bondmen,
and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the

Rev. 12—This chapter is rendered remarkable by the figure of Polysyndeton.
Fortyfour times the word “and” is repeated, bringing before us a variety of details connected with matters which are thus shown to be of the greatest possible importance. In chap, 5, we have the book written “within and without”
(ἔσωθεν καὶ ὄπισθεν, esōthen kai opisthen), pointing to its esoteric (or inner) and exoteric (or outer) meaning. What follows in chaps, 6-11, describes the exoteric or outside manifestations—events which will be seen by all; for chap. 11 carries us right on to the end, to the sounding of the “ seventh” or last trumpet, and thus covers the whole ground, even including Resurrection and Judgment, and the setting up of the kingdom of the Messiah. See 11: 15-18, which is coterminous with Rev. 20.

Chapter 12 does not, therefore, go forward, but takes us back to the time, even before chap. 5, and gives us the esoteric or inner meaning, and reveals to us the sources, springs, and secrets of all that leads up to the judgments recorded in chaps, 6-11. Chapters 13-19 introduce supplementary information which must be read into those earlier preceding chapters (6-11), showing the part that the Dragon and his agent the Antichrist will have in them.

Chapter 12 is constructed as follows:—

                                                                  Rev. 12


     A / a / 1-5. The woman, the dragon, and the child.

                  b / 6. The woman’s flight, and its duration (1,260 days).

                        B / 7-13. War in heaven (ἐγένετο, came to pass).

     A / b /14. The woman’s flight and its duration three years and a half.

            a / 15, 16. The woman, the dragon, and the rest of her seed.

                        B / 17. War on earth.

Each of these members can, of course, be expanded. For example: —
a: (1-5). The woman, the dragon, and the child.
a / c / 1-. A great sign in heaven.
d / -1. A woman. Her description                         The
                             (“crown,” στέφανος, a victor’s crown). }
e / 2. Her action: and the child.                      Woman

       /c / 3-. Another great sign in heaven.
               d / -3. The dragon. His description                             The
(“crowns,” διάδηματα, royal fillets)    }
                                (see only here, and 13:1 and 19:12).               Dragon
e / 4, 5. His action: and the child (Dan. 8:10).

         b: (verse 6) may be expanded thus: as may be also b (verse 14).
     b / f / 6-. The woman: her flight.
g / -6-. Her place—the wilderness.
f / -6. The woman: her nourishment.
                 g / -6. Her continuance— 1,260 days.

                               The larger member B: (7-13) may be thus shown:—

                                       B: (7-13) War in heaven.
B / h /7, 8. Heaven. War in heaven.
                 i / 9. Earth. The dragon cast into the earth.
/ h / 10-12. Heaven. Rejoicing in heaven.
i / 13. Earth. The dragon cast into the earth.

                 i (verse 9) thus: —
The dragon cast out on earth.
i / j / 9-. The Dragon.
k / -9-. Place; cast out into the earth.
/ j / -9-. His angels.
                            k / -9. Place. Cast out with him.
                 h (verses 10-12) thus: —

                                                     Rejoicing in heaven.

                  h / l / 10. Heaven. Rejoicing.
m / -10-. Earth. Salvation come for it.
                                        n / -10, 11. Reason, “For the accuser, etc.”
                     / l / 12. Heaven. Rejoicing.
                              m / -12-. Earth. Woe to the inhabiters.
                                        n / -12. Reason. “For the devil is come down,” etc.

The woman and her seed and the dragon takes us back to Gen. 3, where we see the “enmity” placed between them. Thence we are taken to the woman (Israel), through whom the child was to come, as seen in the call of Abraham, and in the establishment of “Israel,” and his twelve sons, of which the twelve stars (the Zodiacal signs*) were the symbols. (See Gen. 37.).
* Just as the seven stars in chap. 1 are the symbols of the Churches.

The Zodiac is a certain zone of the heavens extending about 9° each side of the Ecliptic. This is divided into twelve parts, each of which has its own peculiar “sign.”
The word “ Zodiac” is not to be derived from
ζάω, or ζήν, to live, or ζώδιον, a little animal (for not all the signs are animals), but from a more ancient root through the Hebrew צעד, to go, to go by steps, to step, to move slowly in a regular and stately manner. (See 2 Sam. 6:13. Jer. 10:5. Judges 5:4. Psa. 68:7. Hab. 3:12). The noun means a step. So that the Zodiac is literally a way with steps. Its later Biblical name is Mazzaroth (מַזָּדוֹח ), Job 38:32 (see margin); or Mazzaloth (מַזָּלוֹת see margin) 2 Kings 23:5, from the root אָזַל (azal ), to go or revolve, divided, as the Zodiac is divided into signs. Gesenius points out that the Mazzaroth (from אזד) has another sense, and means to admonish, premonish, presage. See Gen. 37:9, 10, where in Joseph’s prophetic dream he sees the whole family represented as “The sun, and the moon,
and the eleven stars,” (himself being the twelfth.)*


The birth of the seed of this woman is set forth in the Old Testament in two distinct prophecies, showing its two-fold character, one answering to “the sufferings of Christ”; the other, to “the glory that should follow.”
In Isa. 7:14, we have the Incarnation of “Emmanuel—God with us” (Matt. 1:23).

While, in Isa. 9:6, 7, we have the birth presented, with the scene of humiliation overleaped.
The former is the “suffering” aspect: the latter is the “glory” aspect of the birth of this Child.

It is remarkable that in Matthew—(the gospel of the kingdom) — we have the suffering aspect from Isa. 7:14; while in Luke—the gospel of Christ as man—we have the glory aspect from Isa. 9:6, 7. See and compare Luke 1:31-33.

* Ancient Jewish authorities hold that these twelve stars were the signs of the Zodiac. This is, without doubt, the case. These “stars” have been well called “signs” for in them is written in the very heavens the history of redemption. Each of the symbolical figures is pictured performing some typical action. From the earliest times, also, one was appropriated to each of the twelve sons of Jacob. Josephus informs us that the tribes carried these signs on the tribal standards. The Chaldee paraphrase, of a still earlier date, says the same. The Targums also add their testimony. As the order of encampment is described in Num. 1 and 2, the four tribes: Judah, Ephraim, Dan and Reuben are equidistant. The sign of Judah was “Leo,” the lion; Ephraim’s was “Taurus,” the bull; Dan’s was “Scorpio,” the scorpion (afterwards changed to the “Aquila,” the eagle); and Reuben’s was “Aquarius” the man. These four signs are at the four cardinal points of the Zodiac, exactly corresponding with the position of the four tribes. It is interesting to note that the sign now known as “Libra,” or, the scales, is not found in the more ancient Zodiacs, its place being occupied by “Ara,” the altar, the top of which the sign or hieroglyphicKR much more resembles.

 KR  See page 231 of “Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible”.
(Unable to reproduce hieroglyphic.)

The idea contained in Libra, the scales, or Justice, is the altar on which justice was satisfied. Libra or Ara was not borne on any of the standards, Simeon and Levi being included under one (Pisces). Hence the place of Libra, or rather of Ara, the altar, was the place occupied by the Tabernacle, and by the altar of burnt offering itself. It is remarkable that the three decans, or constellations of Libra, or Ara, are the Cross, the Victim, and the Crown.


The evidence is altogether too overwhelming for us to take these “twelve stars” as representing anything but Israel. It is a “woman” that is seen, but her surroundings
(of sun and moon, and the twelve signs of the Zodiac) show that she personifies emblematically the whole nation of Israel.

See The Witness of the Stars by the same author and publisher.


In Rev. 12:5, it is this latter, or the glory aspect of Messiah’s birth that is presented,
as referred to in Psalms 2 and 87. It leaps over the “sufferings of Christ,” and over the whole of the interval of this present dispensation, and goes forward at once to the time when He shall reign over and rule all nations. “Who was to rule”(verse 5) is
μέλλει (mellei), and means “who is to rule all nations.” It passes from the birth of the man-child, and goes on at once to “the glory which should follow, when the government shall be upon his shoulder.”

It is Christ Personal therefore, in the first instance, who is the subject of this prophecy. He was the “man-child” “caught up to God and His throne.”
But this does not exhaust the prophecy. The word rendered “man-child” in verse 5 is a peculiar word.* The R.V. renders it “a son, a man child.” Here it is, according to all the critical texts (including the Revisers’ Text) and Ancient MSS, ἄρσεν (arsen). Now ἄρσεν here is neuter, and therefore cannot possibly refer to any one individual. It cannot apply to either a man or a woman. The mother of this child is not an individual! but is collective and composite. So also is the child.

* The masculine form, ἄρσην (arseen), occurs only in Matt. 19:4. Mark 10:6. Luke 2:23. Rom. 1:27. Gal. 3:28, where in each case the sex is emphatic.
We have a similar example of a neuter word including both sexes in the word γυναικάρια (gunaikaria), in 2 Tim. 3:6. where it is rendered “silly women.” But it occurs only here, and is neuter. It therefore includes silly women of both sexes.

Some see in this “man-child” the Church of God. But the Church is neither “woman” nor “child,” “neither male nor female” (Gal. 3:28). The Church is “one new man” in Christ (Eph. 2:15). The Church was before creation, “before the foundation of the world” (Eph. 1:4), and is not, therefore, the subject of prophecy, as is the kingdom and dominion in the earth, which was “from the foundation of the world” (Matt. 13:35; 25:34, etc.).

On the other hand, we have such distinct prophecies in the Old Testament of this woman and her child that it surprising any should fail to connect them.

A time is coming when a new nation is to be brought forth in Israel;
a nation bringing forth the fruits which Israel should have brought forth;
the nation referred to in Matt. 21:43.

Concerning that day Jehovah bids Zion to “sing” (Isa. 54:1-10). Of that day Jehovah has said, “Before she travailed, she brought forth; before her pain came, she was delivered of a MAN-CHILD. Who hath heard such a thing? who hath seen such things?
Shall the earth be made to bring forth in one day ? or shall a nation be born at once? for as soon as Zion travailed she brought forth her children”
(Isa. 66:5-14).

Again Micah 4:9, 10 distinctly foretells this travail of Zion; while chap. 5:2, 3 connects together this composite man-child. In verse 3, we have the birth of Him, who shall be “ruler in Israel.” His rejection by His people is not named, but the consequent rejection of His people by Him both implies it and contains it; for, in the next verse,
we read, “Therefore will He give them up, until the time that she which travaileth hath brought forth; then the remnant of his brethren shall return unto the children of Israel. And He shall stand and rule (marg.) in the strength of the Lord, in the majesty of the name of the Lord his God; and they shall abide: for now shall he be great unto the ends of the earth.”

Surely, if there is any connection whatever between prophecy and its fulfilment,
we have it in Rev.12, where we see in this woman, Zion, “travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered” (verse 2), and the dragon standing “before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.”

This was true of Messiah, and it will be true of the servant (the composite “child”),
as the rest of the chapter goes on to explain.

It is this birth of a nation “in one day,” which will lead to the “war in heaven,”*
Dan. 10:2012:1 ), and lead to the Dragon’s being cast out into the earth.
This will bring on the crisis described in this chapter and
chapter 13

(See 2 Thess. 2:6, under Ellipsis.)
See a small pamphlet, Things to Come, by the same author and publisher.


The chapter is too long to quote here in full, but if all the many “ands” be noted
and marked, the importance of all these details will be at once noticed.
See the next example.


Rev. 13:1-9—Here the figure is used to mark, to emphasize, and to call our attention
to the solemn events, which will follow upon Satan’s being cast out into the earth,
to find no more place in heaven (12:8). Forty-five times the word “and” is repeated in this chapter!

Rev. 12 is the key to the Apocalypse for the events recorded in it are preliminary
to the events recorded in the earlier part of the book.

First of all comes the taking up of the Body of Christ (12:5) which causes the
“war in heaven” (12:7-12), and ends in the casting out of Satan. This is the great event which is the beginning of the end, and which ushers in the Apocalyptic scenes and judgments.

Chap. 9:1, though coming before chap, 12, records a vision subsequent to it. John says, “I saw a star lying fallen πεπτωκότα (peptōkota) from heaven.” not “fall,” as in A.V. R.V. has “fallen.”

Consequent on this follows a great persecution of Israel; which will be to those who are left, the first exoteric or visible sign of the Devil’s “great wrath” (12:12): But this persecution will for a time be thwarted. “The earth” will “help the woman” (12:16). That is to say, the settled state of the peoples of the earth will stop this persecution.
Then the Dragon at once proceeds to organise his great rebellion. In the Greek the twelfth chapter ends with the first sentence of chap.13 where, as in the R.V., the true reading is—“And HE stood upon the sand of the sea.” The best MSS., with Lachmann, Tregelles, Alford, and Westcott and Hort, read 
ἐστάθη (estathee), he stood, not ἐστάθην (estatheen), I stood.

That is to say, the settled state of “the earth” preventing the destruction of Israel, the Dragon takes his post upon the sand of “the sea” and out of the waters and the earth (of the peoples) he calls up the two Beasts of chap.
13—his last two great instruments,—the “Antichrist” and the “False Prophet,”—by which he will seek to carry out his purposes.

John sees them “rising up.” The word is 
ἀναβαῖνον (anabainon, present participle), rising or mounting up, not “rise up” as in A.V. The R.V. has “coming up.” John sees the first Beast “rising up out of the sea” (implying a gradual rather than a sudden act): and the second Beast out of “the earth” (verse 11).

And then he proceeds to describe their characters and their deeds. The figure of
Polysyndeton (a remarkable example) calls our attention to the many important details, each one of which is to be dwelt upon by us as being full of meaning and instruction: —
And he stood upon the sand of the sea (i.e., the dragon, when cast out from heaven),
and I saw a beast rising up out of the sea having seven heads,
ten horns,
and upon his horns ten crowns,
and upon his heads the names of blasphemy;
and the beast which I saw was like a leopard
. (a combination of Daniel’s beasts in one,
Dan. 7
 ) (a leopard is Greece),
and his feet were as the feet of a bear (Persia),
and his mouth as the mouth of a lion (Babylon),
and the dragon gave him his power
. (six times we have in this chapter “it was given
and his seat (or throne, 3:13
; 16:10), and great authority (Luke 4:6; 2 Thess. 2:9, 10).
and I saw one of his heads, as it were, wounded to death (similar to verses 6, 12, 14),
and his deadly wound was healed;
and all the world wondered [and followed] after the beast
. (Rev.
3:10; 2 Thess. 2:11, 12),
and they worshipped the dragon
. (this is the one great object, aim, and end of Satan,
Matt. 4:9)
  which gave power unto the beast;
and they worshipped the beast, saying. Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him?
  (Compare Ex. 15:3, 11, for the blasphemy.)
and there was given to him a mouth, speaking great things and blasphemies
. (
2Thess. 2:4),
and authority was given him to continue forty and two months (Dan. 7:25),
and he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name
. (
Dan.7:8, 11, 20, 25; 11:36; Psa. 52; 2 Thess. 2:4),
and his tabernacle (whither the saints have been previously taken),
and them that dwell in heaven (9, the body of Christ which shall have been caught up, when the accuser has been cast down).
and it was given him to make war with the saints (Dan. 7:21, 25; 11:40-44),
and to overcome them (Dan. 8:12, 24 ; 11:28, 30-33 ; 12:7):
and power was given him (John 19:11) over all kindreds,
and tongues,
and nations (as with Nebuchadnezzar, Dan. 3:7);
and all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him (2 Thess. 2:11, 12), whose names are not written in the book of life.
(Matt. 24:24; Dan.12:1. These are they who “overcome” him 2:7, 11, 17, 26; 3:5, 12, 21; 12:11) of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. If any man have an ear to hear, let him hear.”*

This chapter contains two visions relating to two Beasts*: the first, the Antichrist; the second, the “False Prophet.” The first is the false Christ, and the second is the false—and satanic counterfeit of the Holy Ghost. The second is marked, like the first, by the figure of

* See 2 Thess 2, under Ellipsis and Correspondence.

The structure of this chapter is very remarkable. In the Greek the first sentence forms the end of chap.12 So we commence with the second “And I saw”: —
The Vision of the Two Beasts (Rev. 13).
A / 1-. The vision (καὶ εἶδον), “And I saw.”
.           B / -1-. The first Beast (Antichrist).
.                   C / -1-. His origin. The sea (ἀναβαῖνον, rising),
.                           D / -1, 2-. His description.
.                                   E / -2. His power 
(δύναμις) derived from the dragon.
F / 3-8. His deeds.
G / a / 9. The Spirit’s call: “Let him hear.”
                                                             / b / 10. The lesson: “Here is patience and faith.”


/ 11. The vision (καὶ εἶδον), “And I saw.”
            B / -11-. The second Beast. “The False Prophet” (16:13; 19:20).
C / -11. His origin. The earth (ἀναβαῖνον,rising).
.                            D / -11. His description.
E / 12-. His authority (ἐξουσία) derived from the first Beast.
                                            F / -12-17. His deeds.
G /       b / 18-. The lesson: “Here is wisdom.”
.                                                          / a / -18. The Spirit’s call: “Let him count.”

Here A to F and A to F relate to the Beasts, while G and G relate to the saints.
order of the two members of G and G is an introversion, to make them off from the rest.

Rev. 18:12, 13—Here the figure heaps up and amasses the wealth of Babylon.
Each item is to be dwelt upon: there is no climax: —

“The merchandise of gold,
and silver,
and precious stones,
and of pearls.
and fine linen
. (merchandise, not the gift of grace as with the Bride, 19:8,“granted” to her:
. her righteous award),
and purple,
and silk,
and scarlet,
and all thyine wood,
and all manner of vessels of ivory,
and all manner of vessels of most precious wood,
and of brass,
and iron,
and marble,
and cinnamon (amomum, an Italian shrub of sweet odour),
and odours,
and ointments,
and frankincense,
and wine,
and oil,
and fine flour,
and wheat,
and beasts (of burden),
and sheep,
and horses,
and chariots,
and slaves,*
and souls of men.

* (Greek σώματα somata, bodies, was used by the Figure of Synecdoche as a term for slaves, as we use “hands” for labourers.

See LXX Gen. 36:6. Hebrew נפש  in  both passages, used of the dead body
(Num. 9:6; 19:11-13)
and for the living (Lev. 24:17), but especially for slaves or captives
(Num. 31:35, 40, 46. The “bodies” carry the merchandise, and the “souls” are counted as merchandise. See under Synecdoche.)

Many other examples of
Polysyndeton are to be found, e.g., Num.20; 2 Chron. 32:27, 28, 29, 30; Isa. 3:18-24. Zeph. 1:15, 16. Mark 4:1-9. Eph. 1:21. Phil. 4:9. Rev. 11:17, 18; 20:9-15; 21:8 and 22-27; 22:1-6, 17.

From “Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible” by E. W. Bullinger,
(Public Domain) pages 208-237. Adapted for website compatibility.
See original at link.      Stream           Download.

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