Rom 11:1-36 KJV

 1   I say then, Hath God cast away his people? God forbid.
For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham,[of] the tribe of Benjamin.
( Prolepsis/Occupatio/Tecta 980)

2   God hath not cast away his people which he foreknew.
Wot ye not what the scripture saith of Elias?
how he maketh intercession to God against Israel, saying,
(Idioma 857)

3  Lord, they have killed thy prophets, and digged down thine altars; and I am left alone,
and they seek my life.
(Gnome 792  see 1 Kings 19:10,14,18)

4  But what saith the answer of God unto him? I have reserved to myself seven thousand men,
who have not bowed the knee to [the image of] Baal.
(Gnome 792  see 1 Kings 19:10,14,18)

5  Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the election of grace.

6  And if by grace, then [is it] no more of works: otherwise grace is no more grace.
But if [it be] of works, then is it no more grace: otherwise work is no more work.

7  What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for; but the electionM
 hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded
(Metonymy589; Idioma 824)

8  (According as it is written, God hath givenM2 them the spiritM1  of slumber,
eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear;) unto this day.
(Polyptoton 274; MetonymyM1 545MetonymyM2 571; Gnome 799; Idioma 824)

9  And David saith, Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a stumblingblock,
and a recompence unto them:

10 Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see, and bow down their back alway.

11 I say then, Have they stumbled that they should fall?God forbid:
but [rather] through their fall salvation [is come] unto the Gentiles,
for to provoke them to jealousy.
( EllipsisE 23; Prolepsis/Occupatio/Tecta 980)

12 Now if the fall of them [be] the riches of the world,

and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fulness?

13 For I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the apostle of the GentilesH ,
I magnify mine office:
(HyperbatonH 696; Apostrophe 903)

14 If by any means I may provoke to emulation [them which are] my flesh,

and might save some of them.
(Apostrophe 903)

15 For if the casting away of them [be] the reconciling of the world,

what [shall] the receiving [of them be], but life from the dead?

16 For if the firstfruit [be] holy, the lump [is] also [holy]:
and if the root [be] holy, so [are] the branches.
(Allegory 750)

17 And if some of the branches be broken off, and thou, being a wild olive tree,

wert graffed in among them, and with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive tree;
(wert: archaic second person singular past tense of the verb be.)(Hendiadys 666; Allegory 750)

18 Boast not against the branches.

But if thou boast, thou bearest not the root, but the root thee.
(Ellipsis 30; Allegory 750; Antimetathesis 899)

19 Thou wilt say then, The branches were broken off, that I might be graffed in.
(Antimetathesis 899; Epitrope 972)

20 Well; because of unbelief they were broken off, and thou standest by faith.

Be not highminded, but fear:
(Epitrope 972; Prolepsis (Occupatio/Aperta 981)

21 For if God spared not the natural branches, [take heed] lest he also spare not thee.
(Parallelism 361; Prolepsis (Occupatio/Aperta 981)

22 Behold therefore the goodness and severity of God: on them which fell,
severity; but toward thee, goodness, if thou continue in [his] goodness:
otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.
(Parallelism 361; Prosapodosis 395)

23 And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be graffed in:

for God is able* to graff them in again.
(Parallelism 361; Idiom* 825)

24 For if thou wert cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature,

and wert graffed contrary to nature into a good olive tree: how much more shall these,
which be the natural [branches], be graffed into their own olive tree?

25 For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery,
lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel,
until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in.

26 And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written,
There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob:
(Gnome 799)

27 For this [is] my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins.
(Gnome 799)

28 As concerning the gospel, [they are] enemies for your sakes:
but as touching the election, [they are] beloved for the fathers’ sakes.

29 For the gifts and calling of God [are] without repentance
(Anthropopatheia 875 see Hosea 13:14)

30 For as ye in times past have not believed God,

yet have now obtained mercy through their unbelief:

31 Even so have these also now not believed,
that through your mercy they also may obtain mercy.

32 For God hath concluded them all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all.

33 O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God!
how unsearchable [are] his judgments, and his ways past finding out.
(Homœopropheron 175 see Pro. 25:3; Anthropopatheia 893;
Thaumasmos 923 see also Ecphonesis 927)

34 For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counsellor?
(Erotesis 950)

35 Or who hath first given to him, and it shall be recompensed unto him again?
(Erotesis 950)

36 For of him, and through him, and to him, [are] all things: to whom [be] glory for ever.

(Polyptoton 282 see also BibleHub Rom 11:36)

words in [brackets] were added by the King James Version translators.

In verses 1 and 11 an objection or argument is anticipated and dealt with before it can be presented. This is the figure Prolepsis Occupatio, or Anticipation. Another type of Prolepsis is when an anticipation of the future is spoken of as a present reality. This is called Prolepsis Ampliatio.

Verse 2: The word Wot is mentioned as an idiom, which it is. However, it is not a Hebrew or Greek idiom, but rather a Middle English idiom meaning to know.
Wot here is the Greek word εἴδω, eidō, pronounced ā’-dō, and means to perceive with the eyes or any of the senses; to know.
Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for eidō (Strong’s 1492)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2018. 17 Dec 2018.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Verse 6: “otherwise”
Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for epei (Strong’s 1893)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2018. 23 Dec 2018.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

The Greek words in black lettering are found in both the Textus Receptus from which the King James Version of the New Testament came, and the Alexandrian, from which the Westcott-Hort edition and the Nestle-Aland 26th edition came. The words in red appear only in the Textus Receptus, not the Alexandrian.

11:6 ει δε χαριτι ουκετι εξ εργων επει η χαρις ουκετι γινεται χαρις
ει δε εξ εργων ουκετι εστιν χαρις επει το εργον ουκετι εστιν εργον

11:6 And if by grace, then [is itno more of worksotherwise grace is no more grace. 
But if [it be] of works, then is it no more grace: otherwise work is no more work.

Verse 7 Metonymy: Election means elect persons.

Verse 7 and 8 both contain separate instances of the figure Idioma. Both of these are a type of Idiom called an Idiom of Permission. God is said to have blinded the unbelievers and to have given them a spirit of slumber so as not to be able to believe. God did not actually blind the unbelieving, He permitted it. He also did not give them an evil spirit so that they would sleep through salvation’s calling. God simply permitted people to act upon their own choices. God is not taking blame for their consequences, this is simply the way the people of that time understood to express what was actually happening.

A way of understanding this in secular terms is that God created water. He also invented evaporation and precipitation. If I am out fishing, with no one else around for 20 miles, and it starts raining, I could say that God made it rain on me. Well, He was not sitting at His computer monitor watching me, saying, “there’s Kenny, I’m going to get him soaking wet”. Neverthless, I can say He made it rain upon me because if He hadn’t invented water I would not even have been fishing.

Scripturally, a key to use in identifying this figure is to ask yourself who is doing the speaking. If it is someone speaking about God, then there is a stronger possibility of it being this figure. But we must also keep in mind instances such as God saying He would harden Pharaoh’s heart, when it was Pharaoh who refused to change. God did what was right and just in demonstrating His power and sovereignty, but Pharaoh refused to change. With each demonstration of God’s power Pharaoh had a new opportunity to repent, but pride would not allow him. God allowed Pharaoh to convict himself. Perhaps in modern terms it might be said that what God had detirmined and declared He was going to do would present too large a stumbling block for Pharaoh’s pride to not cause him to trip and fall.

Compare this to Gen 6:11-17.

Verse 8 Polyptoton: see “The Companion Bible” side notes on

Matt. 13:13.
βλεποντες ου βλεπουσιν και ακουοντες ουκ ακουουσιν.
βλεποντες Bible Hub listing of 11 occurrences.
Bullinger’s Lexicon and Concordance page 675
βλεπουσιν Bible Hub listing of 4 occurrences.
Bullinger’s Lexicon and Concordance page 675
ακουοντες Bible Hub listing of 15 occurrences.
Bullinger’s Lexicon and Concordance page 360
ακουουσιν Bible Hub listing of 9 occurrences.
Bullinger’s Lexicon and Concordance page 360

An example of ἀκούω may be given in light of a song we hear, and yet for various possible reasons we do not understand because the lyrics are indiscernible.
Hence, understand is no. 1 συνιουσιν on page 830 of

Bullinger’s Lexicon and Concordance.
Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for syniēmi

(Strong’s 4920)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 13 Jan 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Metonymy 1 and 2: “God hath given them the spirit of slumber…”

The figure here is in the verb “given” and the noun “spirit”, which
Dr. Bullinger indicates to be Metonymy. This is tricky to understand considering he defines Metonymy as the exchange of nouns, but allows for verbs in the sense of the action that proceeds from the noun.
(see pg. 538) The noun “spirit” is used for the soul (Metonymy of cause).

Some today would call this the Idiom of Permission, which Dr. Bullinger indicates as well. The Idiom of Permission, perhaps here, should be called instead the Idiom of Declaration, wherein God declares the effect of an action before the action takes place. As with the account of Moses and Pharaoh, God declares the effect of the actions He is about to take before the action is taken. It isn’t that God actually caused Pharaoh’s heart to be hardened, nor is it that God desired it to be so. It is simply God declaring what He would do in advance, and then what to expect as the response and result of that action.

Gnome: see Isaiah 29:10 and Deuteronomy 29:4

11 The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.

12 And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.

13 And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.

14 Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch.

15 And this [is the fashion] which thou shalt make it [of]: The length of the ark [shall be] three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.

16 A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; [with] lower, second, and third [stories] shalt thou make it.

17 And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein [is] the breath of life, from under heaven; [and] every thing that [is] in the earth shall die.

I’ve heard it said that verse 17 is also the Idiom of permission, with God simply allowing the flood to occur. But God is speaking directly to Noah. God is not an Hebrew, neither was Noah, so to say this is the Hebrew Idiom of permission does not fit. Also, God explains exactly why He is about to bring the flood.

Furthermore, God uses two figures of speech in verse 17 to make it clear that it is He who is bringing the flood.

17 “And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth…”. “Behold” is the figure Asterismos, and is like an asterisk or star to catch the readers attention. Then, “I even I” is the figure Epizeuxis. This is a figure of repetition establishing that it was God and no one else bringing the flood. And, even though it is Moses telling what God said, he is speaking directly for God Who declared He would do this, and why.

In a sense, God is using Prolepsis here in His use of Asterismos and Epizeuxis. He is answering later claims of this being the Idiom of Permission, before those claims are presented.

Verse 11: Ellipsis; see page 23 for explanation.

Prolepsis/Occupatio/Tecta: an objection is anticipated and addressed before it can be presented.

Verse 13 Hyperbaton:
ειμι εγω εθνων αποστολος is am I of the Gentiles the Apostle
The words are out of order for emphasis.

Verses 13 and 14 contain an Apostrophe, which in figures of speech is a turning aside to address something else. Here Paul takes a moment from speaking about Israel to address the Gentiles.

Verses 16-18 contain an Allegory. For a better understanding of Allegory see page 748.

Verses 18 and 19 contain the figure Antimetathesis, which is a transposing of speakers or addressees. Here, even though in the Church of God, which is the Body of Christ, there is neither Jew nor Gentile, Paul addresses the idea that was entertained by some that the Jews had been cast off in order for the Gentiles to take their place. The figure is in that Paul addresses them as if they were still Gentiles.

18 Boast not against the branches. But if thou boast, thou bearest not the root, but the root thee.

19 Thou wilt say then, The branches were broken off, that I might be graffed in.
(See Gal. 3:28; Rom 2:28; Col 3:11)

Verse 20 Well: well (said). Although kalōs, καλῶς is not translated this way in any verse, based upon what verse 19 is saying, it would seem to be understood as saying “well said” in verse 20. Remember, it is Paul speaking here, not those whom he is addressing. In modern terms the “thou wilt say” of verse 19 might be understood as, “I’ll bet you are thinking”. In verse 20 then the “well”, also in modern terms, would be a response such as, “I’m glad you are thinking that” or “I’m glad you asked that question”. This then corresponds with the figure used here Prolepsis.

Prolepsis (Occupatio/Aperta): anticipation of something that will be said (or thought), and addressing the objection before it can be presented. In verse 1 and again in verse 11 Paul uses Prolepsis (Occupatio/Tecta), in which he states the anticipated objection, but gives only enough of a response to indicate that the objection is not warranted, without closing any argument. Then, here in verses 20 and 21, he uses Prolepsis Occupatio again, only this time it is not an unfinished Tecta, but rather he closes the anticipated argument using Prolepsis Occupatio Aperta. The difference between the Tecta and the Aperta is in the finality of the response. After Aperta the objection should be closed.
Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for kalōs (Strong’s 2573)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2018. 13 Dec 2018. 
< http://
amp;t=KJV&page=2 >

The Parallelism (page 361) is as follows the arrows…
a → b → c → d → ← dcba

21 a → For if God spared not the natural branches, b → [take heed] lest he also spare not thee.
c Behold therefore the goodness and d →severity of God: d on them which fell, severity; c but toward thee, goodness, if thou continue in [his] goodness:b otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.
23 a And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be graffed in: for God is able to graff them in again.

Broken down into parallels it looks as such…

a. → For if God spared not the natural branches,
b. → [take heed] lest he also spare not thee.
c. → Behold therefore the goodness and
d. → severity of God:
d. ← on them which fell, severity;
c. ← but toward thee, goodness, if thou continue in [his] goodness:
b. ← otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.
a. ← And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be graffed in:
for God is able to graff them in again.

Verse 23 Idioma: “able” means “willing and able”, as willingness is implied.

Verse 25 until: ἄχρι ; achri; ä’-khrē : a preposition or conjunction meaning until or unto,

Verse 26 and 27 Gnome: see Isaiah 59:20,21 and 27:9.

Verse 33: Homœopropheron, or Alliteration is the repetition of the same letter or syllable at the beginning of two or more words in close succession or proximity. They must be close enough to each other to see in writing or hear their similarity of sound. The two words ἀνεξεραύνητα, anexeraunēta (unsearchable) and ἀνεξιχνίαστοι, anexichniastoi
(past finding out) begin with the same sound. The figure then draws our attention to these two words

Verse 36 Polyptoton: pronoun “Him” repeated in different cases;
( αὐτοῦ – genitive / αὐτὸν – accusative / αὐτῷ – dative).

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for ek (Strong’s 1537)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 26 Jan 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for dia (Strong’s 1223)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 26 Jan 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for eis (Strong’s 1519)“.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 26 Jan 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

See also Eph 1:10.

Thanks go to Blue Letter Bible and Internet Archive and The Cornell University Library for providing public domain material.

Thanks also to E. W. Bullinger for his work
Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible”, and thanks to you for taking the time here.
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