(c.) Where an omitted PARTICLE is to be repeated from the preceding clause.

…..(1.) Negatives.

The negative is frequently omitted; and is generally supplied in the A.V. and R.V.

Deut. 33:6 — “Let Reuben live, and not die; and let [not] his men be few.”

1 Sam. 2:3 — “Talk no more so exceeding proudly;
let [not] arrogancy come out of your mouth.”

1 Kings 2:9 — “Now therefore hold him not guiltless:
for thou art a wise man, and knowest what thou oughtest to do unto him;
but his hoar head bring thou down to the grave with blood.”

This has been a favorite text with ” those that oppose themselves”
(2 Tim. 2:25).
Misunderstanding the phrase, where David is called “a man after God’s own heart”
(as though it referred to David’s character, instead of to David’s calling, being chosen by God and not, as Saul was, by man), infidels have pointed to 1 Kings 2:9 to show David’s faithless and bloodthirsty character! But if, as in so many other cases, we repeat the negative from the preceding clause, there is no such difficulty but his hoar head bring thou [not] down to the grave with blood.”

True, Solomon did put Shimei to death, but this was for quite another reason,
and as Solomon said, Shimei’s blood was upon his own head (verse 37).
Thus the passage is brought into agreement with David’s oath to Shimei, which is repeated in immediate connection with this verse (verse 8 from 2 Sam. 19:23).

Psa. 9:18 — “For the needy shall not alway be forgotten:
the expectation of the poor shall not perish for ever.”

Here the negative is supplied by the A.V. in italics.

Psa. 38:1 — “O Lord, rebuke me not in thy wrath:
and chasten me [not] in thy hot displeasure.”

Psa. 75:5 — “Lift not up your horn on high:
speak [not with]  a stiff neck.”

Here the negative is supplied, as it is in many passages.

Prov. 25:27 — “It is not good to eat much honey;
so for men to search their own glory [is not] glory.”

Isa. 38:18 — “For the grave cannot praise thee, death can [not] celebrate thee.”

It is open to question whether Gen. 2:6 is one of these cases.
The three verses 4-6 describe the condition of the earth before the creation of man (verse 7), and before the plants and herbs of the field grew. (Compare verses 4 and 9). Then three negative reasons are given why these did not grow : —
(1) “For (כּי) the Lord God had not (לאּ) caused it to rain upon the earth,
(2) and (ו) there was a man nowhere (אַיִן) to till the ground,
(3) and (ו) [no] mist went up to water the whole face of the ground.”
**and (ו).
**[no] (Ellipsis, or omitted word supplied).
See https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/conjunction.html

(2.) Interrogatives.

………………………………..לָמַּה (lammah). Why?

Psa. 2:1, 2 —“Why do the heathen rage, and [why do] the people imagine a vain thing? [Why do] the kings of the earth set themselves, and [why do] the rulers take counsel together?”


Psa. 10:1—Here the A.V. repeats it: “ Why (לָמָּה) standest thou afar off, O Lord? why hidest thou thyself in times of trouble?”



………………………………...כַּמָּה (kammah). How oft?

Job 21:17 —“How oft is the candle of the wicked put out! and how oft cometh their destruction upon them!”

Here the words “how oft” are correctly repeated in the A.V. But why not repeat them also in the following sentences, instead of supplying the word “God,” and translate thus: “[How oft] He distributeth sorrows in His anger! [How oft] are they as stubble before the wind, and as chaff that the storm carrieth away! [How oft] God layeth up calamity for his (i.e., the wicked man’s) children.* He recompenseth him and he shall know it; his eyes shall see his destruction, and he shall drink the wrath of the Almighty.”
*The R.V., missing the proper Ellipsis, arbitrarily introduces the words “Ye say, God layeth up iniquity for his children,” taking the words as the words of the wicked man instead of the children!


………………………………אֵיךְ (eykh). How?

Psa. 73:19 —“How are they brought into desolation, as in a moment!
they are utterly consumed with terrors.”
But it is better to repeat the word “how”: — “How are they utterly consumed with terror!”


……………………………….אֵיכָה (eykah). How!

An exclamation of pain and grief “How!” This gives its title to the book of Lamentations in the Hebrew Canon† “Eykah.”
† The title in the English Version is from the Latin Vulgate. See The Names and Order of the Books of the Old Testament, by the same author and publisher.

Three prophets use this word of Israel:—Moses uses it of Israel in his glory and pride (Deut. 1:12): Isaiah, of Jerusalem in her dissipation (Isa. 1:21): and Jeremiah,
of Jerusalem in her desolation (Lam. 1:1etc.).

Hence, the word very frequently occurs in the book of Lamentations; and its Ellipsis or omission is frequently to be supplied by repetition. In many cases this is done in the A.V. Note, for example: —

Lam. 1:1, 2 —“How doth the city sit solitary, that was full of people!
how is she become as a widow!
she that was great among the nations, and princess among the provinces,
how is she become tributary!

2. [How] she weepeth sore in the night,” etc.
3. [How] is Judah gone into captivity …
4. [How] the ways of Zion do mourn.”

See also 2:1, 2, etc.; 4:1, 4, 8, 10.


……………………………….מַה (mah). How!

Joel 1:18 —“How (מַה) do the beasts groan! [How] are the herds of cattle perplexed!”


……………………………….עַד־מֶה (ad-meh). How long?

Psa. 4:2 —“O ye sons of men, how long will ye turn my glory into shame?
how long will ye love vanity?”

Here the interrogative is repeated, but why not repeat it again instead of supplying the word “and”? Thus:—“[How long] will ye seek after leasing?”

Psa. 89:46 — “How long, Lord? wilt thou hide thyself for ever? [How long, Lord] shall thy wrath burn like fire?”


. ……………………………….עַד.־מָתַי (ad-mahthai). How long?

Psa. 94:3, 4 —“Lord, how long shall the wicked, how long shall the wicked triumph? How long shall they utter and speak hard things? [How long] shall all the workers of iniquity boast themselves?”


From “Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible” by Dr. E. W. Bullinger,
(Public Domain) pages 93-96. Adapted for website compatibility.
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