Ephesians 2:1-22  KJV –
[Bracketed] words in italics were added by the translators.

1 And you [hath he quickened i,] who were dead in trespasses and sins
(Ellipsis 109 (see notes at bottom) Idiomai 859 AssociationA1 900

2 Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air M, the spirit that now worketh in the children of  A1 disobedience i:
(Antimereia A1 504; Metonymy M 577; 594; Anacoluthon 723; Idioma i 833; Association A2 900)

3 Among whom also we all A2 had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of A1 wrath, even as others.
(Anacoluthon 723; Antimereia A1 500; AssociationA2 900)

4 But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us,
(Anthropopatheia 893)

5 Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened i us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved E)
(Epitrechon E 474; Idioma i 859)

6 And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus:
(Heterosis 519)

7 That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.
(Anthropopatheia 893)

8 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:
(Genitive Case 992)

9 Not of works, lest any man should boast.

10 For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.

11 Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands;

12 That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:

13 But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the bloodm of Christ.
(Metalepsism 610; Anacoluthon 723)

14 For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us;
(Anacoluthon 723)

15 Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace;

16 And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby:

17 And came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh.

18 For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.

19 Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God;

20 And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stoneA;
(AnthropopatheiaA 897)

21 In whom all S the building A fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple A in the Lord:
(Synecdoche S 636; Anthropopatheia A 897)

22 In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit.

Notes and references:
[Bracketed] words in italics added by translators.

Verse 1
And you [hath he quickened,] who were dead in trespasses and sins;
Textus Receptus
(Received Text/Stephanus)

2:1 Καὶ ὑμᾶς ὄντας νεκροὺς τοῖς παραπτώμασιν καὶ ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις

GNT Morph (Westcott-HortNA26)
2:1 καὶ ὑμᾶς ὄντας νεκροὺς τοῖς παραπτώμασιν καὶ ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ὑμῶν Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for hymon (Strong’s 5216).
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 9 Aug 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G5216&
amp;t=KJV >

The words “hath he quickened” (made alive together with), are not in the text, and without them verse 1 really isn’t a complete thought. Therefore the translators, and Dr. Bullinger, considered this to be an Ellipsis based upon the use of the word in verse 5. “Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ…”

This then would be an Ellipsis  of Repetition, where the omitted word is to be supplied out of a succeeding clause (verse 5). In verse 5 the Greek word for quickened (made alive together with) syzoopoieo is in the Aorist tense, which is generally understood in English as a simple past tense. Referring back to verse 1 we encounter a difficulty in the verb “being”, ὄντας
ontas, as it is a present tense, and would therefore seem to contradict already having been made alive. The Ellipsis of Repetition out of verse 5 would therefore relieve this contradiction by supplying the past tense “hath He quickened”. And you hath He (past tense) made alive who at that time (present tense) were dead in your trespasses and sins.

This too presents another difficulty as to when was at that time. Dr. Bullinger offers an alternative suggestion of Ellipsis that, in part, clears that difficulty. He suggests considering the Ellipsis to be supplied from 1:19 and 20 “…the exceeding greatness of His power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of His mighty power, which He wrought in Christ when He raised him from the dead…..and you [when you were raised in him, and quickened with him] were dead in trespasses and sins”. Here he offers an Ellipsis of Repetition from a previous clause in Eph. 1:20 “raised him from the dead”, and combines it with the Ellipsis of Repetition from a succeeding clause in Eph. 2:5.

If we consider an alternative rendering of the word kai that begins verse 1 of chapter 2 with “also“, rather than “and“, the flow from 1:20 seems to fit. Although kai is generally translated as and, the KJV translates it also 514 times, so translating it also does have justification. “…..when He raised him from the dead…..also you [were raised in him, and quickened with him] who were dead in trespasses and sins”. We were dead, but God raised us up from among the dead when He raised His son, the Lord Jesus Christ. This is part of our identification with Christ.

Quickened: obsolete word used meaning “make alive“. https://archive.org/details/americandictiona02websrich/page/n401/mode/2up

Association: in verses 1 and 2 he is addressing those to whom the epistle was written. Then, in verse 3, while the subject matter remains the same, he includes himself with them.

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for syzoopoieo (Strong’s 4806)”. Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 10 Aug 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G4806&
amp;t=KJV >

Verse 2
Antimereia: pg. 503 explains that the word sons or children with a noun (in regimen) is used idiomatically, and denotes the nature or character of those mentioned, and may even denote their source or origin“.

Metonymy: The KJV uses the word “course” here when translating the word αἰών, aion. “age” exchanged with the people of this world, or age; (according to the age of this kosmos).

See “Synonyms Of The New Testament” by Richard C. Trench
See also “Metonymy: the god of this world” by Kenneth J. Rossoll.

Idioma: “children of wrath”. A stronger implication than “wrathful children”, which would be the demonstration of their character. Children do not become “un-children” of their parents, but are forever family. Dr. Bullinger saw this to mean children of Satan, or the Devil by spiritual birth. Because there are many various implications for the word children, I hesitate to join in agreement with him. Whatever the actual meaning, it is clearly an Idiomatic expression.

Verse 3
Anacoluthon: change from second person to first person. In verses 1 and 2 the pronoun is “ye”, but then changes to “we” in verse 3, even though addressing the same subject.

Antimereia: in addition to pg. 500, see also pg. 498 and the discussion about mighty angels. Flesh (sarkos) is the noun used as an adjective, but by using the noun, it puts special emphasis on the noun “flesh”. Even though “flesh” is used, and only a part of the whole, I do not believe it be a Synecdoche, for the mind, or thoughts, also is/are mentioned. Flesh is only part of the body as a whole, but if the word is used as an adjective it is emphasizing a quality relating to desires. Synecdoche is a special form of Metonymy. Synecdoche deals with quantity, whereas Metonymy deals with quality. “Thoughts”, as relating to the flesh, is a quality of the flesh, making this Metonymy.

Association: this goes hand in hand with the Anacoluthon when Paul includes himself with those he is addressing.

Verse 4
Anthropopatheia: Rich. God condescends to the level of man so as for man to better understand Him.

Verse 5
Epitrechon: : (“by grace ye are saved”). This is a type of parenthesis that is not complete in itself. It is thrown in to add to what has been said.

Idioma: Quickened; an obsolete word meaning “to make alive“. https://archive.org/details/americandictiona02websrich/page/n401/mode/2up

Verse 6
Heterosis: a future event is spoken of as past tense.
See also Prolepsis Ampliatio.

Verse 7
Anthropopatheia: kindness.

Verse 8
Genitive Case: “The gift of God” (which God gives).

Verse 13
Metalepsis: this is a Metonymy within another Metonymy. Blood exchanged for death, and death exchanged for the atonement his death accomplished.

Anacoluthon: change from second person to first person.

Verse 14
Anacoluthon: a change from the second person to the first person.

Verse 20
Anthropopatheia: “cornerstone”.

Verse 21
Synecdoche: “every” put for “every part”.

Anthropopatheia: “cornerstone”.

Italicized words in [brackets] were added by the King James Version translators.

Thanks go to Blue Letter Bible and Internet Archive and The Cornell University Library for providing public domain material.

Thanks also to E. W. Bullinger for his work,
“Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible
”, and thanks to you for taking the time here.

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