Gen 1:1-31 KJV

1 In the beginning God created the
heaven and the earth.
(Polar-Merismos; Anadiplosis 251)


2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness [was] upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the faceof the waters.
(Anadiplosis
251; Ellipsis 37; Paronomasia 308; Pleonasm 406; Anthropopatheia895; Polysyndeton indicated by boldface throughout section [see endnote])

3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
(Anthropopatheia
888)

4 And God saw the light, that [it was] good: and God divided the light from the darkness. (Anthropopatheia 888)

5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morningwere the first day.
(
Anthropopatheia; Synecdoche 656)

6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
(
Anthropopatheia)

7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which [were] under the firmament from the waters which [were] above the firmament: and it was so.

8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.
(
Anthropopatheia; Synecdoche656)

9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry [land] appear: and it was so.
(
Anthropopatheia; Antimereia 495)

10 And God called the dry [land] Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that [it was] good.
(
Anthropopatheia 888; Antimereia 495 )

11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, [and] the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed [is] in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.
(Polyptoton
275)

12 And the earth brought forth grass, [and] herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed [was] in itself, after his kind: and God saw that [it was] good.
(Anthropopatheia
888)

13 And the evening and the morning were the third day.
(Synecdoche
656)

14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:
(Anthropopatheia
)

15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.

16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: [he made] the stars also.

17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,

18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that [it was] good.
(Anthropopatheia
888)


19
And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.
(Synecdoche
656)

20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl [that] may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.
(Anthropopatheia
; Synecdoche 641)

21
And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that [it was] good.
(Synecdoche
641; Anthropopatheia 888)

22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.
(Benedictio 919)

23 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.
(Synecdoche
656)

24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.
(Synecdoche
641; Polysyndeton)

25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that [it was] good.
(Anthropopatheia
888)

26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
(Anthropopatheia
; Hendiadys 659 )

27 So God created man in his [own] image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.


28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.
(Anthropopatheia
; Benedictio 919; Prolepsis 914 )

29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which [is] upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which [is] the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. (Anthropopatheia)

30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein [there is] life, [I have given] every green herb for meat: and it was so.
(Ellipsis
81; Synecdoche 641)

31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, [it was] very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.
(Anthropopatheia; Synecdoche 656)


Italicized
words in [brackets] were added by the King James Version translators.

Thanks go to Blue Letter Bible and Internet Archive and The Cornell University Library for providing public domain material.

Thanks also to E. W. Bullinger for his work
Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible”, and thanks to you for taking the time here.

Notes:
Anadiplosis2* Translators have varied opinions as to whether the first word of the verse, “and” should be “and” or “but”, and whether it should be “kai ” (και) or “de” (δε) in the Greek. The figure anadiplosis begins a sentence with the same word or words that the last sentence ended with. Verse 1 ends with … “and the earth”, then verse 2 begins with … “the earth”. It is my opinion that the figure Anadiplosis remains regardless of whether the conjunctive “and” is used or the disjunctive “but”. The thought is carried from verse 1 to verse 2 that the earth, not the heaven, was without form and void and darkness.

Furthermore, the word “but” is called a disjunctive, however it should be thought of as a disjunctive conjunction. By this I mean that two thoughts are joined together (conjunction) to observe their difference(s). In verse 1 God creates the heaven and the earth. In verse 2 the earth is disjoined from the heaven in being without form and void, with a conjunction showing the dis-joining thought. (Only the earth, not the heaven is without form and void and darkness). This tells us a great deal, namely that, if God created the heaven and it was NOT without form and void, there is no reason to believe that He created the earth differently. In the beginning He created the heaven and the earth.

In verse 2 Dr. Bullinger considers the second “was” to be an ellipsis, which is an intentional omission of a word, generally for focus and brevity. I do not share that opinion regarding the second “was“. The figure Polysyndeton  binds “form” to “void” and “darkness”. If the second “was” remains as an ellipsis it suggests that all creation was darkened, rather than the Earth exclusively.

 

Polysyndeton – Some who recognize and study figures of speech hold to the notion that any repeated use of the conjunction “and” qualifies the figure Polysyndeton.  Others hold to the notion that repeated “ands” as found in Genesis and the gospels are simply a particular narrative style used during times when written narrative was not the norm, but oral was. The “and” then was used in a similar way that the modern “.” (period) is, however, with the sense of beginning rather than ending.

My opinion is that the narrative style is present, mixed with what we know as the figure Polysyndeton as well.


I strongly suggest watching the following video of Jack Langford regarding the concept that has come to be known as the “Gap” between verses 1 and 2. I believe that an understand of the figure of speech Anadiplosis, its form, function, and fulfillment of purpose, is the key that opens the ear of those seeking the truth as to what scripture says regarding this subject.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=swE5wH1fs1Q


I also highly recommend the works of author D. Edward Tench on the subject of creation- https://www.amazon.com/s?k=d.+edward+tench&crid=1VNJIK3EFDQQH&sprefix=d.+edward+tench%2Caps%2C113&ref=nb_sb_noss

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