b) Where the omitted VERB is to be REPEATED from a PRECEDING clause.

Gen. 1:30 — The verb “I have given” is correctly repeated in the A.V. from verse 29.

Gen 4:24 — “If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold, i.e., “Lamech [shall be avenged] seventy and sevenfold.”

This is spoken with reference to what is stated in the preceding verse, which is very obscure, both in the A.V. and R.V. The A.V. renders it “I have slain”, and margin
I would slay,” while the R.V. renders it “I have slain a man for wounding me,” etc., and margin “I will slay.” But we must note that these words of Lamech were called forth by the fact that through his son, who was “an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron,” Lamech was in possession of superior weapons.

This is the earliest form of poetry in the Bible. It is significant that it should be in praise of that violence which was soon to overspread the earth. It is in praise of the new weapons of war which Lamech had now obtained; and so proud is he of his newly-acquired power, that if anyone injured him he declares that he would be so avenged that he would outdo Jehovah in His punishment of Cain.
See further for the poetical form, under Parallelism.

Deut. 1:4 — “And Og, the king of Bashan, which dwelt at Astaroth
[he (i.e., Moses) slew] in Edrei.”
See Num. 21:33; Deut. 3:1.

1 Kings 20:34 — “Then said Ahab.”
The verb must be repeated from the preceding clause.

Psa. 1:5 — “Therefore the ungodly shall not stand in the judgment, and sinners
[shall not stand] in the congregation of the righteous.”

Thus, the blessing of the righteous is, that they do not stand among “sinners” (verse 1) now; and the punishment of the ungodly will be that they shall not stand among the righteous in the judgment (verse 5).

Psa. 45:3 — “Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty: [gird thyself] with thy glory and thy majesty.”


Psa. 126:4 — “Turn again our captivity, O Lord, as the streams in the south.”

There must be a figure employed here, as the grammatical construction is not complete. There is neither subject nor verb in the second clause, as will be apparent if we set them forth, thus: —

……….Oh Lord…………..turn again………….our captivity
the streams of the south.

Consequently, it is clear that a figure is employed, and that this figure is Ellipsis.

The correct supply of the Ellipsis will enable us to give a literal translation of the other words. The comparison employed shows us that the verb required in the second sentence must be repeated from the first.

“Turn again our captivity, oh Lord, as [thou turnest] the streams in the south.”
But this does not yield the whole sense, unless we see the correct and literal meaning of the words.

The word “streams” is אֲפִיקִים (apheekeem). It is from the root אָפַק (aphak)
to put a force, constraint or restraint upon (Gen. 43:31; 45:1; Est. 5:19).

It is the proper name for a narrow and practically inaccessible water-course,
either natural (in a gorge or underground); or artificial (in an aqueduct), in which the water is forced, restained, and turned about by its strong barriers in various directions. It occurs eighteen times.* Six times with the word “sea” or “ waters.”
2 Sam. 22:16. “The channels of the sea appeared.”
. Job 6:15. “As the stream of brooks they pass away.”
. Job 12:21. “He weakeneth the strength of the mighty” (i.e., the apheekeem).
. Job 40:18. “His [Behemoth’s] bones are as strong pieces of brass”
like apheekeem or aqueducts of brass).
. Job 41:15. “His [Leviathan’s] scales are his pride” (margin, strong pieces
of shields).
. Psa. 18:15. “Then the channels of waters were seen.”
. Psa. 42:1. “As the hart panteth (margin, brayeth) after the water-brooks:”
i.e., the apheekeem. So also Joel 1:20.
. Psa. 126:4. “Turn our captivity, O Lord, as the streams in the south.”
. Song Sol. 5:12. “His eyes are as the eyes of doves by the rivers of waters”
(i.e., inhabiting the rocky cliffs of the apheekeem.).
. Isa. 8:7. “He [the king of Assyria] shall come up over all his channels
(i.e., over the rocky barriers of the apheekeem).
. Ezek. 6:3. “Thus saith the Lord God to the mountains, and to the hills, to the rivers, and to the valleys”
(i.e., to the gorges and the valleys, answering to the mountains and hills of the first line). So also 36:4, 6.
. Ezek. 31:12. “His boughs are broken by all the rivers of the land.”
Ezek. 32:6. “The rivers shall be full of thee.”
. Ezek. 34:13. “And feed them upon the mountains of Israel by the rivers.”
. Ezek. 35:8. “And in all thy rivers, shall they fall that are slain with the [sword
. Joel 3:18. “All the rivers of Judah shall flow with waters.”

Thus in Psa. 42:1 and Joel 1:20, the hart is pictured עַל־אֲפִיקֵי־מָיִם (al apheekai mayim), over (not “for” see Gen. 1:2, “darkness was upon the face of the deep”; 1:20,
“fowl that may fly above the earth,” etc.), above the apheekaimayim. The hart hears the rushing of the waters far below in their rocky bed, and she “crieth out”
(עָרַג (arag) to cry, to long for, only here and Joel 1:20) for the waters she cannot reach.

Then as to the word rendered “south” (נֶגֶב, Negeb). This is the proper name of a certain district in Canaan. It was “south” relatively to Canaan, but not absolutely.
This is clear from Gen. 12:9, where we read, “Abram journeyed [from Bethel]
going on still toward the south” (הַנֶּגְבָּה, the Negeb), Afterwards we read (13:1):
“And Abram went up (north) out of Egypt . . . into the south” (הַנֶּגְבָּה, the Negeb).†

† It is still more clear from Deut. 1:7, where we have four distinct topographical names:—
“in the plain (i.e., in ARABAH, the Jordan Valley),
in the hills (i.e., the HILL COUNTRY of Judah), and
in the vale (i.e., in SHEPHELAH, the plain of Philistia),
in the south” (i.e., in the NEGEB, the region south of the hill country of Judah).

For other passages, see Num. 13:17, 29; 21:1. Deut. 34:3. Josh. 10:40: 12:8; 15:21. Judges 1:9. 1 Sam. 30:1. Jer. 17:26.
Noting these words, several passages are greatly elucidated,
such as Jer. 32:44: 33:13. Zech. 7:7. Gen. 13:1, etc.

The Negeb is intersected by deep and rocky gorges, or wadis, called “apheekeem”. Springs and wells are almost unknown in that region.

We can now take the literal signification of these words, and supply the Ellipsis by repeating the verb of the first clause, in the second, and thus learn the meaning of the passage: —
“Turn again our captivity, O Lord, as [thou turnest] the apheekeem in the Negeb,” i.e., as those rushing waters are turned hither and thither by their mighty, rocky barriers, so Thou canst put forth Thy might, and restrain the violence of our enemies, and turn us again (as the rocky cliffs and walls turn about the apheekeem) into our own land.


Prov. 10:23 — “It is as sport to a fool to do mischief: but a man of understanding,
hath wisdom,” i.e., “It is as sport to a fool to do mischief, but [to exercise] wisdom
[is as sport] to a man of understanding.”


Prov. 17:21 — “He that begetteth a fool doeth it to his sorrow,”
i.e., begetteth him to his sorrow.


1 Kings 14:14 — “The Lord shall raise him up a king over Israel who shall cut off the house of Jeroboam that day: but what? even now,” i.e., “but what [do I say]? even now [has he raised him up]:” for Baasha, who was to cut off the house of Jeroboam, had even then been born. Chap. 15:27, etc. See under Aposiopesis.


2 Kings 9:27 — “And Jehu . . . said, Smite him also in the chariot, and they did so,
i.e., “ And [they smote him] at the going up to Gur.”


1 Chron. 2:23 — “All these belonged to the sons of Machir, the father of Gilead.”

Here the Ellipsis is arbitrarily supplied in the A.V. by introducing a new word into the text. The verb “took” must be repeated from the preceding clause, and not the verb “belonged” brought in from nowhere:—“And he took Geshur, and Aram, with the towns of Jair, from them, with Kenath, and the towns thereof, even threescore cities.
All these [took] the sons of Machir the father of Gilead.”


Neh. 5:4 — “There were also that said, We have borrowed money for the king’s tribute, and that upon our lands and vineyards.”

Here the words “we have mortgaged‘” must be repeated from verse 3.
Thus:— “There were also some that said, We have borrowed money for the king’s tribute, [we have mortgaged] our lands and vineyards.”


Ecc. 10:1 — Here the Ellipsis is supplied by the words “so doth.” But it is better to repeat the verb, thus:—“As dead flies cause the ointment of the apothecary to send forth a stinking savour: so a little folly [causeth] him that is in reputation for wisdom and honour [to send forth an offensive odour].”


Isa. 8:19, 20 — “And when they shall say unto you, Seek unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards that peep, and that mutter: should not a people seek unto their God? for [should] the living [seek unto] to the dead?
To the Law and to the Testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.”


Amos 6:12 — “Shall horses run upon a rock? will one plow there with oxen?”
i.e., “Shall horses run upon a rock? will a husbandman plow [a rock] with oxen?”


Mark 12:5 — “And again he sent another; and him they killed, and many others
[whom he sent, and they used them shamefully, from verse 4] , beating some,
and killing some.”

Mark 14:29 — “Although all shall be offended, yet will not I [be offended].”

Luke 22:37 — “For I say unto you, that this that is written
must yet be accomplished in me, And he was reckoned amongst the transgressors:
for the things [written] concerning me have an end.”

This was the last prophecy written of Him which was to be fulfilled before His betrayal, so He now abrogated a precept, necessary at the presentation of Himself,
but no longer necessary now that He had been rejected, and was about to die. Now, therefore, they might not only carry a sword, but buy one. So that He was only “reckoned” by man among the transgressors.

John 15:4 — “No more can ye, except ye abide in me,”
i.e., “No more can ye [bear fruit] except ye abide in me”
(see above, pages 12, 13).


Rom. 1:12 — “That is, that I may be comforted together with you.”
The verse begins in the Greek, τοῦτο δέ ἐστι (touto de esti), but this is.
The verse reads, “But this [imparting to you some spiritual gift] is (or means)
our being jointly comforted by our mutual faith.” He refers to his desire to see these saints in Rome, and the verb is repeated from verse 11, “For I long to see you.”


Rom. 7:24, 25 — “O wretched man that I am!
who shall deliver me from the body of this death?
I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord.”

The sense in this last clause is manifestly incomplete as an answer to the previous question. Following the most approved reading, instead of ‘“I thank God,” we take
the more ancient words, “Thanks be to God,” * and repeat the words from verse 24, thus:—“Who shall deliver me from the body of this death ? Thanks be to God,
[He will deliver me] through Jesus Christ our Lord.”

* Through not noticing the Ellipsis, attempts have been made from the earliest times to get sense by altering the text. The T.R. has εὐχαριστῶ τῷ Θεῷ , with Griesbach, Scholz, and AKLPN. But χάρις τῷ Θεῷ Griesbach, Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles, Alford, Westcott and Hort, and R.V. Also the Vatican MS. Others read, “But thanks be to God,” and others, “It is the grace of God” (DE), and others, “It is the grace of the Lord” (FG)

The deliverance here desired is from the conflict between the old nature and the new, the flesh and the spirit.†
†It is to be noted that “spirit” with a small “s” is one of the names given to the new nature which is implanted in every believer who is born again of the Holy Spirit; and this term “spirit” is to be distinguished from the Person of the Holy Spirit, from the context as well as from the absence of the article. Even in Rom. 8:1-15, the Person of the Holy Spirit is not mentioned. Not until verse 16, “spirit of God” in 8:9 and 14 is divine spirit, i.e., “divine nature” (2 Pet. 1:4), “spirit of Christ” (8:9) is Pueuma-Christou, Christ-Spirit, another term for the new nature. So, “spirit of adoption”
(verse 15) is “sonship-spirit,” and “the spirit of Him” (verse 11) is “the new nature [given by] Him who raised up,” &c

But as the flesh is bound up with this “body of death,” i.e., this dying body, this mortal body, there is no deliverance except either through death and resurrection, or through that “change” which shall take place at the coming of Christ.

The old heart is not changed or taken away, but a new heart is given, and these two are contrary the one to the other. They remain together, and must remain until God shall “deliver” us from the burden of this sinful flesh—this mortal body—by a glorious resurrection like unto Christ’s. This deliverance is further described in 8:11 and 23; and it is “through Jesus” that our mortal bodies shall be raised again.
See 1 Thess. 4:14,
διὰ Ιησοῦ (dia Ieesou), “by means of Jesus,” and 1 Thess. 5:9:
“God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation (i.e., full deliverance from this body of sin and death) by (i.e., by means of, or through) our Lord Jesus Christ.”

See this passage under the Figures of Metonymy, Hypallage, Ecphonesis, and Erotesis.


Rom. 8:19-21 may be explained thus: —

…..A / 19 For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God.

The Reason
…….B / 20- For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same:

..A -20 [Waiteth, I say (from verse 19)] in hope,

The Reason
…….B / 21 Because the creature itself shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.

Here, A, corresponding with A, shows us that we are to repeat in the latter member A, the verb used in the former,
A; the subject of each member being the same.


Rom. 8:33 — “Who shall lay anything to the charge of God’s elect? It is God that justifieth. Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died.”

We have to remember that, while only the greater pauses are indicated in the ancient manuscripts, there is no authority for the minor interpunctuation. This can generally be accurately gathered by the devout student of the context. Here it is probable that the questions ought to be repeated:—“Who shall lay anything to the charge of God’s elect? [Shall] God who justifieth [them]? Who is he that condemneth [them]? [Is it] Christ who died [for them]? Yea, rather; that is risen again, etc.”


1 Cor. 4:15 — “For though ye have ten thousand instructors in Christ, yet have ye not many fathers.”

Here the verb “ye have” is correctly repeated in the A.V.


1 Cor. 15:23 — “But every man [shall be made alive (from verse 22)] in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ’s at his coming. Then the end,” i.e., not “then cometh the end,” for τὸ τέλος (to telos) is used of the last company of a body of soldiers.* τὸ τέλος (to telos) is the end: but of what, or what end, can be determined only by the context. Here the subject is the various bodies τάγματαtagmata) ranks, i.e., every man in his own proper band. Of these bands or ranks Christ is first; then they that are Christ’s at His coming; then the last of these bands at the end of the thousand years (Rev. 20:5), when Christ shall deliver up the kingdom.
*Horn. Il. 7, 380; 10, 470, etc.

The second of these is not the resurrection foretold in 1 Thess. 4:16, as the privilege of those who are “in Christ,” but the “first” of the two resurrections referred to in the Old Testament, the Gospels, and the Apocalypse.

2 Cor. 1:6 — “And whether we be afflicted, it is for your consolation.”

Here the A.V. supplies the verb substantive. It is better to repeat the verb
“[we are afflicted] for your consolation.”

2 Cor. 3:11 — “For if that which is done away was glorious, much more that which remaineth is glorious.”

Here the two words διὰ δόξης (dia doxees), by means of glory, and ἐν δόξῃ (en doxee), in glory, are both translated by the same word, “glorious,” while the verb substantive (“was” and “is”) is thus necessarily, though incorrectly, supplied. The R.V. renders the verse, “For if that which passeth away”(margin, is being done away) was with glory, much more that which remaineth is in glory.”

But, if we repeat the verbs already used by the Holy Spirit, we can take the Greek literally: — “For if that which is done away [is done away] by glory (see verse 10), much more that which remaineth, [remaineth] in glory.”


2 Cor. 12:2 — “Such an one [I knew] caught up, etc.”

The verb ἁρπάζω (harpazō) does not necessarily mean that the catching is “up,”
but rather “away.”
In Matt. 11:12. John 6:15. Acts 23:10 it is rendered take by force.
In Matt. 13:19. Acts 8:39 it is catch away.
In John 10:12 it is rendered “catch”.
In John 10:28, 29, it is “pluck”;
while in Jude 23 it is pull,
and in Rev. 12:5 it is again caught up.
See also Ezek. 8:3; Rev. 1:10.

“Such an one [I knew] caught away:” and this either with reference to place or time, i.e., caught away to some present place (Acts 8:39, 40), or to a vision of some future time (as in Ezek. 8:3. Rev. 1:10; 4:2, etc.).


Gal. 2:7 — “The gospel of the uncircumcision was committed unto me,
as the gospel of the circumcision was [committed] unto Peter.”


Gal. 5:17 — “For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other, so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.”

Here the word ἐπιθυμέω (epithumeō) is connected with κατά (kata), against, i.e., to desire that which is against, or contrary to. The same verb is used both of the flesh and of the spirit (i.e., the new nature), and the Ellipsis of the verb with reference to the latter enables it to be used in its bad sense with regard to the flesh and in a good sense with regard to the spirit:— “For the flesh desires that which is against the spirit, and the spirit desires that which is against the flesh; and these desires are contrary to one another, so that ye cannot do the things that ye would,” i.e., so that your new nature is hindered ofttimes in doing those good things that ye would, and, thank God, your old nature is also hindered from doing the things which it lusts after.


Eph. 1:13 — “In whom ye also trusted.”

Here the verb is repeated from verse 12: but it seems rather that another verb should be repeated, from verse 11:
“In whom ye also were allotted as God’s own inheritance,” for it is the inheritance which is the subject of the context and not the matter of trusting.

The R.V. neither sees, nor supplies the Ellipsis, treating it as an Anacoluthon (q.v.).

Eph. 4:22 — We must repeat from verse 17, “[I say also] that ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts.”

1 Thess. 2:11 — “Ye know how we exhorted and comforted and charged every one of you, as a father doth his children.”

Here all three verbs are to be understood, i.e., “as a father [exhorteth, and comforteth, and chargeth] his children.”
(See under Polysyndeton).

The R.V. better preserves the order of the Greek, supplying and treating the Ellipsis
as absolute. “As ye know how we dealt with each one of you, as a father with his own children, exhorting you, and encouraging you, and testifying, etc.”

1 Thess. 4:14 — “For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him.”

R.V.: — “Even so them also that are fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him.”

The two clauses of this verse, as they are thus translated, are so inconsequent that the passage has been a source of difficulty to many, and is practically unintelligible. When this is the case we must ask whether there is a figure employed, and, if so, what it is. Here it can be only the figure Ellipsis. But what are the omitted words, which if supplied will cause the passage to yield sense as to teaching, and completeness as to structure?

Before we can answer this question we must institute an enquiry into the usage of the word translated “even”, as this is the key that will open this lock, besides explaining and throwing light on many other passages. The word “even” here is καί (kai), and καί (kai) is the ordinary conjunction, and, which has two distinct senses, (1) and, (2) also or even. It is the latter of these with which we are now concerned. It is a matter of great importance that we should always know what is the word which it emphasizes. In the Greek, this is never in doubt.*
* Nor is it in the Hebrew, as the ו is always joined to and forms part of the word with which it is connected.
But in English literature, including both the A.V. and the R.V., its usage is very inconsistent and defective. In the Greek, καί, when it means also, is always placed immediately BEFORE the word which it emphasizes; while in English usage it may be placed either before or after the word. When we add to this that both in the A.V. and R.V. it is often dissociated altogether from this word, the confusion and ambiguity can be imagined.

The word καί is used in the sense of also some 636 times in the New Testament†
† See a pamphlet on the usage of the word “Also” in the New Testament, by the same author and publisher.
In 258 of these it is placed (in the A.V.) after the word.
In 275 it is placed before the word,
or in connection with another word to which it does not belong.
In 60 places it is not translated at all.
In 43 places it is rendered even, and placed before the word.
Sometimes the A.V. and R.V. agree in this, and sometimes they differ.

Now, remembering that the English word “also” must immediately follow the word which it emphasizes, we ask what is that word here (1 Thess. 4:14)? As the Greek stands, it reads, “If we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them which sleep in Jesus, GOD also will bring with him.” But this yields no intelligible meaning. The hope that is mentioned in the second clause cannot be conditioned on our belief of the fact stated in the former clause.

But notice, before we proceed, that the preposition διά (dia), when it governs the genitive case, as it does here, denotes agency, and is rendered “by” 235 times, “through” 87 times, etc.; but “in” only 8 times. See its use in the very next chapter
(1 Thess. 5:9), “We are appointed to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ”
(διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ); Rom. 7:25, “I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord” (διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ); Rom. 5:9, “We shall be saved from wrath through him” (δι᾽ αὐτοῦ ). No wonder therefore that the R.V., while translating it here “in Jesus,” says in the margin, “Greek, through,” and adds the alternative rendering, “Will God through Jesus bring”.

The one thought and subject is Resurrection, as the great and blessed hope of the Lord’s people. The three clauses are perfectly balanced, as will be seen in the following structure of verse 14: —

. …..a / If we believe (Belief)
…………b / that Jesus died (Death)
. …………….c / and rose again, (Resurrection)
a / In like manner [we believe] also (Belief)
………. b / That them which are asleep (Death)
……………. c / will God (by Jesus) bring with Him [from the dead ] (Resurrection).

Here in a and a we have the statement of our belief, in b and b we have death
(in b the death of Jesus, and in b the death of His saints), while in c and c we have resurrection (in c the resurrection of Jesus by God, and in c the resurrection of His people by God), but in an explanatory parenthesis it is explained that the Lord Jesus will be the agent, as the context goes on to show (see John 5:21: 11:25, 43). It was God who brought Jesus from the dead (Heb. 13:20). In like manner will He—by Jesus—bring His people from the dead.

Hence, we must repeat the verb “we believe” from the first clause: “If we believe that Jesus died and rose again, in like manner [we believe] also that God will, through Jesus, bring, with Him, them that are fallen asleep.”

This is the scope of the passage, which immediately goes on to explain how this will be accomplished. We have the same hope presented in the same manner in Rom. 6:5; 8:11; 2 Cor. 4:14, viz., that Resurrection and Advent are the only hope of mourning saints.


Heb. 3:15 — “While it is said, To-day, etc.” (So R.V.). The Greek is “ ἐν τῷ λέγεσθαι Σήμερον,” “in (or by) its being said, To-day.”

The simplest solution of this confessedly difficult passage is to repeat the exhortation from verse 13:
“ [As ye are exhorted] by the saying. To-day, etc.”

Heb. 4:7 —“Again [seeing] he limiteth,” from verse 6.

Heb. 4:10 — “For he that hath entered into his rest, he himself also hath rested from his works, as God [rested] from His.”


Heb. 7:8 — “And here men that die receive tithes; but there he receiveth them, of whom it is witnessed that he liveth.”

The reference is clearly to Melchisedec, and it is not testified of him that he now liveth. In Psa. 110:4 it is testified of Christ, “Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.” That which marked “the order of Melchisedec” as being different from “the order of Aaron” was the fact that the days of Aaron’s order of priesthood began at 30 years of age, and ended at the age of 50 years, whereas the days of Melchisedec’s had neither such a beginning nor such a limitation: his priesthood had “neither beginning of days nor end of life,” but he remained a priest continually, i.e., all his life (7:3). εἰς τὸ διηνεκές (eis to dieenekes) means for a continuance, the duration being determined by the nature of the context.

In chap. 7:1 it must mean that Melchisedec remained a priest all his life; in chap. 10:1 it must mean that the sacrifices were continually offered until the end of the Mosaic dispensation; in 10:12 it means that the one sacrifice of Christ is efficacious in perpetuity (or, with Macknight, that Christ offered only one sacrifice during His whole life); while in chap. 10:14 it means that the perfection arising from this sacrifice is limited only by the life of those who are sanctified.

Hence, here in 7:8 the Ellipsis may be thus supplied:—
“And here men that die receive tithes; but there [a man received them]
of whom it is testified that he lived [a priest all his life.]” *
* The present tense is here (as is often the case) put (by the figure of Enallage (q.v.), or “Exchange”) for the preterite as in Acts 9:26), not believing that he is a disciple
(i.e., was); Heb. 7:3, he remaineth (i.e., remained); Mark 5:15, they come and see
(i.e., came and saw); John 1:29, John seeth (i.e., saw), John 1:45, Philip findeth and saith (i.e., found and said); John 9:13, they bring him (i.e., they brought), etc., etc.
In all such cases the figure of Enallage marks the action which is thus emphasized.

As Melchisedec was a priest all the days of his life, and his was a mortal life; so Christ was a Priest after the same order; and therefore, as His life is eternal, and has no limit, His priesthood (unlike that of Aaron’s) must also be without limit, and He is “a priest for ever.”

Heb. 12:25 — “See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven.”

Here the words are correctly repeated from what precedes.

2 Pet. 1:19 — “We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise; [taking heed, I say] in your hearts.”

It cannot be that we are to take heed until we are illuminated by God’s Spirit, or until we are converted! but that we are to take heed to the word of prophecy in our hearts; for it is like a light shining in a dark place. A light is for our eyes to see, and for our feet to use, but the prophetic word is for our hearts to be exercised with. This is contrary to popular theology. This word declares that the world is the “dark place,” and prophecy is the only light we have in it, to which we do well that we take heed. Popular theology says that prophecy is the “dark place,” and we “do well” to avoid it!


1 John 3:10 — “Whosoever doeth not righteousness is not [born] of God,”
from verse 9. So also verse 12, “Not as Cain, who was [born] of that wicked one.”
Also verse 19, “We know that we are [born] of the truth.”

2 John 2 — “[Loving you] for the truth’s sake,” from verse 1.

2 John 12 — “Having many things to write unto you,
I would not write with paper and ink.”

Rev. 19:10 — “And I fell at his feet to worship him.
And he said unto me, See thou do it not,” i.e.,
See [thou worship me] not.”


From “Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible” by Dr. E. W. Bullinger,
(Public Domain) pages 81-93. Adapted for website compatibility. See original at link.

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