[Eph. 4:1-32 KJV]

1 I therefore, the prisoner of the Lord, beseech you that ye walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called,

2 With all lowliness and meekness, with longsuffering, forbearing one another in love;

3 Endeavouring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond
of peace.
Genitive case 995)

4 [
There is] one body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling;

5 One Lord, one faith, one baptism,
(Metonymy 599)

6 One God and Father of all, who [
is] above all, and through all, and in you all.

7 But unto every one of us is given grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ.

8 Wherefore he saith, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men.
(Ellipsis 68; Gnome 786; Gnome 796)

9 (Now that he ascended, what is it but that he also descended first into the lower parts
of the earth?
(Ellipsis 31;
Genitive case 995)

10 He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill all things.)
(Anthropopatheia 880)

11 And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers;
(Hendiadys 666)

12 For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ:

13 Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ:
(Synecdoche 632 see also pg. 623)

14 That we [
henceforth] be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, [and] cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive;

15 But speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things, which is the head, [
even] Christ:
(Anthropopatheia 873)

16 From whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love.
(Genitive case 999)

17 This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their mind,

18 Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:
(Genitive case 992)

19 Who being past feeling have given themselves over unto lasciviousness, to work all uncleanness with greediness.

20 But ye have not so learned Christ;

21 If so be that ye have heard him, and have been taught by him, as the truth is in Jesus:
(Paroemia 766)

22 That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts;
(Ellipsis 89; Antimereia 501)

23 And be renewed in the
spirit of your mind;
Pleonasm 414)

24 And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.
(Antimereia 501; Metonymy 569)

25 Wherefore putting away lying, speak every man truth with his neighbour: for we are members one of another.

26 Be ye angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down upon your wrath:

27 Neither give place to the devil.

28 Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with [
his] hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth.

29 Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth, but that which is good to the use of edifying, that it may minister grace unto the hearers.
(Ellipsis 51; Antiptosis 508)

30 And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.
(Idioma 856; Anthropopatheia 882)

31 Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice:
(Synezeugmenon 136; Polysyndeton 224; Anacoluthon 723)

32 And be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christ’s sake hath forgiven you.
(Asyndeton 144; Anacoluthon 723)


Notes: If quotes are used from Dr. Bullinger’s book, I convert the Roman numerals to modern form. The KJV is used as the text unless otherwise noted.

The Genitive of Apposition.
Verse 3  Endeavouring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.
…the bond [which is] peace.

Verse 5  One Lord, one faith [doctrine], one baptism,
Metonymy of the Adjunct: “Faith is put for
the thing believed.”
See page 186, right side, #2 also https://archive.org/details/thayer

The One Lord spoken of here is Christ Jesus. As there is One God, so too there is One Lord, Jesus. There is One Body, of Christ, which is the Church, the Temple of God, where worship takes place. There is One Spirit, the spirit of Christ, which is holy. There is One Hope, the return of Jesus Christ to gather together the Body, and all that entails. One Faith therefore refers, by Metonymy of the Adjunct, to a single doctrinal belief of the rightly divided word of God regarding the other “Ones” mentioned here. There is One Baptism, the baptism with the holy spirit that the One Lord performs when an individual Accepts him as Lord, believing he is risen from among the dead, raised by the One God, the Father of all who believe.

Metonymy is a figure by which one name or noun is used instead of another, to which it stands in a certain relationship.

A key to identifying the Metonymy is that the word “one”, μία, the singular feminine form of εἷς (one) is used. There is only one doctrine of salvation, and that is in believing the “one” resurrection of Jesus Christ, and in the acceptance of his Lordship as established by God (Acts 2:36). If this One Faith was an individual’s personal faith, then, as there are many individuals, there would be many Faiths, as applies here specifically. But it isn’t until the eighth “one” of this section in verse 7 that the word “one” refers to the individual. And, since each individual has their own faith, or believing, the One Faith of this section refers universally to one doctrine.

In verse 7 “each one” or “every one” is the Greek word ἑκάστῳ hekasto(s), meaning individually. Each and every individual in the Body Of Christ has been given a gift that, as they minister in the Body, will make evident that God has favored them in this gift. It suits them perfectly, and as they operate in that capacity, it will bring great joy to them individually.

See highlighted text.

See pg. 260 #2 “Every”.

Verse 8 Ellipsis …” led captivity captive and [receiving] gifts, gave them unto men.”

Gnome: “Quoted from Psa. 68:18 (19). Here the original sense is preserved, though the words differ both from the Heb. and the LXX.”

Gnome: “This is supposed to be a case where there is a difference of reading. The English is: ” and gave gifts unto men.” But the Hebrew of Psa. 68:18 (19) is: ” Thou hast received gifts for men.”
In the Psalm we have the prophecy ” that Jah Elohim might dwell among them “; while in the Epistle we have the fulfillment in the gifts received being “actually” given, and the Lord God dwelling in the midst of His People by the Holy Spirit. But apart from this it ought to be noted that the Hebrew (לָקַח lāqa ) has the double and beautiful sense of first receiving and then giving: i.e., receive and give what is received. Hence it is often rendered ” to fetch.” See Gen. 18:5; 27:13; 42:16; Ex. 27:20 ” bring.” Lev. 24:2 ” bring.” 2 Kings 2:20 ” bring.”
We ought, however, to note that in the Psalm we have
בָּאָדָם (baadam) with the article: i.e., in the man. So that we may render it : “Thou didst receive gifts in human nature “: i.e., as “the Son of man” (compare Matt. 28:18; John 13:3). He did give gifts to men.”

Verse 9 The Genitive of Apposition. “Now that he ascended, what is it but that he also descended first into the lower parts of the earth?”
…the lower parts, [that is to say] the earth.

Verse 10 Anthropopatheia: “A Right Hand is attributed to God; to denote the highest power, and most Divine authority.” …”It is used also of the place accorded to Christ in His human nature as now exalted.” I do not see verse 10 as being Anthropopatheia, except in referrence to Eph. 1:10.

Verse 11 Hendiadys: ” shepherds who should feed too; or teachers, yes — teachers who should shepherd too. Not two classes of persons, but one; implying that a shepherd who did not feed would fail in his duty; and so would a teacher who failed to be a pastor.”

There are two classes of figures, namely, PRIMARY and SECONDARY. A primary figure is one that occurs without adding to, omitting from, or changing anything. Hendiadys is subjective, being vulnerable to personal interpretation. Since it is subjective, it is a secondary figure. The figure Polysyndeton also occurs in this verse in the use of many conjunctions. Polysyndeton is a Primary figure, as it is objective.
(8-11 Wherefore he saith, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men… And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers.)

Verse 13 Synecdoche “…come into (i.e., arrived at).”

Verse 15 Anthropopatheia “…which is the head, [even] Christ.”

Verse 16 The Genitive of Relation and Object “…every joint of the supply: i.e., every joint or sensation for the purpose of supply, or with a view to supply“.

Verse 18 The Genitive of Origin and Efficient Cause “Being alienated from the life of God”: i.e., destitute of the life which God gives”.

Verse 21 Paroemia ” The truth as it is in Jesus” is almost invariably thus quoted. The Scripture says (Eph. 4:21): “As the truth is in Jesus,” which is a very different thing. The former implies that there is truth apart from Him. But the latter implies that the truth is in Jesus, and nowhere else.”

Verse 22 Ellipsis of Repetition: ” We must repeat from verse 17, “[I say also] that ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts.”

Antimereia “Lusts of deceit “: i.e., deceitful lusts; or lusts which deceive, and are the instruments of deceit.”

Verse 23 Pleonasm “…the spirit of your mind.”

Verse 24 Antimereia “Righteousness and holiness of truth”:
i.e., true righteousness and holiness, as contrasted with Adam (Gen.1:27) with the emphasis on true.

Metonymy pg. 569

Verse 29 Ellipsis “Here the word ϵἰ (ei) if is omitted in the translation both in the A.V. and R.V. Not observing the Ellipsis, the word ” if ” was omitted to make sense.
With the ” if ” retained, the Ellipsis is properly supplied thus: — ” Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth, but, if any [
speech be] good to the use of edifying, [let it be spoken] that it may minister grace unto the hearers.”

Antiptosis “Building up or edifying of the need.” The A.V. renders this — “Use of edifying;” but it is the word “use” (or need) which is in the genitive case, and not the word ” edifying.” The R.V. renders it” Edifying as the need may be.”
But by the figure of Antiptosis (which neither Version perceived), the former noun is used for the adjective, instead of the latter in the genitive case.
The meaning, therefore, is ” that which is good for edifying use.”

Verse 30 Idioma “sealed” means certifying as correct.

Anthropopatheia “Sorrow and Grief are attributed to God.”

Verse 31 Synezeugmenon: one verb (put away, αἴρω airō) controls a number of nouns.

Polysyndeton: see Dr. Bullinger’s note on pg. 224.

Anacoluthon: According to Dr. Bullinger, a change from second person to first person.
But it appears to be a change from the third person to the second person between the verb “be put away from,”3rd person singular, and the word “you”, 2nd person plural.
See Bible Hub interlinear.

Verse 32 Asyndeton. Dr. Bullinger lists this as an example of the figure Asyndeton due to its lack of the word “and”. “And” is a conjunction, generally expressed by the Greek word kai, which is absent between the words “tenderhearted” and “forgiving”, and also because of the climax, or “punch-line” at the end. It isn’t the climax at the end that makes it an Asyndeton, but simply the lack of a conjunction where there should normally be one. It is missing.

Anacoluthon 723