.                                                                                .                                                                         pg. 538
The change of one noun for another related noun.

From “Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible” by E. W. Bullinger,
(Public Domain) pages 538 – 608. Adapted for website compatibility.

Me-ton-y-my. Sometimes pronounced Met-o-nym-y.
Greek Μετωνυμία, from μετά (meta), indicating change, and ὄνομα (onoma), a name; or, in grammar, a noun.
[See A Greek-English Lexicon” by
Liddell, Henry George, 1811-1898; Scott, Robert, 1811-1887; μετά pg. 946 G. VIII; ὄνομα pg. 1056]

Metonymy is a figure by which one name or noun is used instead of another,
to which it stands in a certain relation.

The change is in the noun,
and only in a verb as connected with the action proceeding from it.

The names of persons are put by Metonymy for something which stands in a
special relation to them. Thus we speak of “a stanhope” (carriage), from the
Hon. Mr. Stanhope; “a brougham,” from Lord Brougham; “boycotting,” from
Capt. Boycott; a “blanket,’” “negus,” a “spencer,” a “d’oyley,” etc., from the respective inventors.

Thus it will be seen that Metonymy is not founded on resemblance, but on relation.

When we say that a person writes “a bad hand,” we do not mean a hand,
but we use the noun “hand” for the characters which it writes.

Metonymy is of four kinds: viz.,
of the Cause, of the Effect, of the Subject, and of the Adjunct.

I. Metonymy of the Cause is when the cause is put for the effect:
i.e., when the doer is put for the thing done;
or, the instrument for that which is effected;
or, where the action is put for the effect produced by the action.

II. Metonymy of the Effect is the opposite of the above:
when the effect is put for the cause.

III. Metonymy of the Subject is when the subject is put for something pertaining to it: as the possessor for the possessed; the thing signified for the sign.

IV. Metonymy of the Adjunct, on the contrary, is when that which pertains to anything is put for the thing itself.

Some grammarians have added a fifth Metonymy, where the antecedent is put for the consequent; but it really belongs to Metonymy of the Cause.
.                                                                                .                                                                         pg. 587
.                          IV. Metonymy of the ADJUNCT

.           The fourth division of Metonymy is called the Metonymy of the Adjunct
.                     (or Relation), and is the opposite of Metonymy of the Subject.

It is so called because some circumstance pertaining to the subject is put for the subject itself; e.g., the contents for the container, the possession for the possessor, etc.
It is divided into the seven following parts: —

.          i. The ADJUNCT or ACCIDENT is put for the subject.

That which is an accident, or belongs to anything, is put for the subject or the thing itself to which it belongs.

           1. The ABSTRACT is put for the concrete; or, the ATTRIBUTE is put for that to which anything is attributed.

Gen. 31:54 “Then Jacob killed beasts upon the mount”:
i.e., he offered sacrifices, as the A.V. renders it.
Here, by Metonymy, the abstract is put for its concrete.

Gen. 42:38 “Then shall ye bring down my grey hairs (i.e., me, in my old age) with sorrow to the grave.”

Gen. 46:34 “For every shepherd is an abomination (i.e., an abominable person) unto the Egyptians.”

1 Sam. 15:29 “And also the eternity of Israel will not lie nor repent.”
Here, the A.V. renders it “Strength”, but the attribute “Eternity” is put for Him to whom it is attributed: i.e., the eternal One: i.e., God. See the A.V. margin.

.                                                                                .                                                                         pg. 588
2 Sam. 23:23 “And David set him over his listeners”:
i.e., those who stood at David’s door and listened for his command.
Hence his bodyguard.
See 20:23. 1 Kings 1:38.

Neh. 5:9 “Because of the reproach (i.e., the reproachful deeds)
of the heathen our enemies.”

Job 5:16 “So the poor hath hope, and iniquity (i.e., the iniquitous man)
stoppeth his mouth.”

Job 31:21 “If I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless, when I saw my help
(i.e., those who helped me or would be on my side) in the gate.”

Job. 32:7 “I said, Days (i.e., men of days, or men of full age) should speak,
and multitude of years (i.e., aged men) should teach wisdom.”

Psa. 12:1 (2) “Help, Lord, for the godly man ceaseth:
for the faithful from the sons of men fail”: i.e., faithful men fail.
So Psa. 31:23 (24); 2 Sam. 20:19.

Psa. 65:8 (9) “They also that dwell in the uttermost parts are afraid at thy tokens:
thou makest the outgoings of the morning and evening to rejoice”:
i.e., thou makest those who go out in the morning and return in the evening to sing.
See under Ellipsis.

Psa. 68:18 (19) “Thou hast led captivity (i.e., captives) captive.”
Isa. 49:24; Jer. 29:14.

Psa. 110:3 “From the womb of the morning:
thou hast (or shall be) the dew of thy youth”:
i.e., thy young men shall be born to thee as dew is born in the morning.

Pro. 23:21 “For the drunkard and the glutton shall come to poverty:
and drowsiness (i.e., the sluggard) shall clothe a man (i.e., himself) with rags.”

Isa. 57:13 “Vanity (i.e., vain men) shall take them.”
So Psa. 144:4; Jas. 4:14.

Jer. 2:5 They “have walked after vanity (i.e., vain things, or idols),
and are become vain.”
See under Paronomasia. So Deut. 32:21; Jer. 14:22, and compare Acts 14:15.

Eze. 44:6 “And thou shalt say unto rebellion”:
i.e., to the rebellious People.

Amos 8:3 “And the songs of the temple shall be howlings in that day.”
.                                                                                .                                                                       *pg. 589

Here, through missing the Metonymy in the first part of this sentence, the A.V.
has been obliged to alter the latter part, and put in *the margin, “Heb., shall howl.”
But if we note that “songs” are put for singers, then we have perfect sense:—
“And the singers of the temple shall howl in that day.”

Luke 1:78 “Whereby the dayspring from on high hath visited us”:
i.e., the morning star which precedes the day. So John the Baptist,
as the “morning star,” preceded Christ, Who is “the Sun of Righteousness.”
See Isa. 9:2 (1); 60:1, 2; Mal. 4:2 (3:20), etc.

John 11:40 “Said I not unto thee, that, if thou wouldest believe,
thou shouldest see the glory (i.e., the glorious work) of God?”

Rom. 3:30 “Seeing it is one God, which shall justify the circumcision by faith
and uncircumcision through faith.”
Here, “circumcision” is put for those who are circumcised; and uncircumcision for uncircumcised persons, as in 15:8 and Gal. 2:9, 12.

Rom. 8:19 “The earnest expectation of the creation (i.e., created things or creatures) waiteth.”

Rom. 11:7 “But the election (i.e., elect persons) hath obtained it.”

Eph. 1:21 “Here, the attributes are put for the beings who possess them:—
“Far above all princes, and powerful beings, and mighty ones, and lords”:
i.e., all spiritual beings in heavenly places.
See also under Synonymia and Polysyndeton.

Phil. 1:16 “Supposing to add affliction to my bonds”:
i.e., my captivity.
See also under Prosapodosis.

1 Pet. 2:17 “Love the brotherhood”:
i.e., the brethren. Compare 2:9.

         2. Other ADJUNCTS also are put for the subjects to which they pertain:
.             as Light for the sun, Oil for anointing, etc.

Gen. 34:29 “And all their strength”:
i.e., wealth, as in A.V.

Ex. 14:4 “And I will be honoured upon Pharaoh and upon all his power.”
Heb. is
חֵילֹו :i.e., his power, which is put by Metonymy for his army,
which was the expression of his power.
See below 1 Sam. 14:48.

Lev. 13:4 “Then the priest shall shut up the plague seven days”:
i.e., as in A.V., “him that hath the plague.”
See verses 13, 31, 50.

.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 590
Deut. 8:17 “And thou say in thine heart,
My power and the might of mine hand hath gotten me this strength”:
i.e., wealth, as in A.V.

1 Sam. 14:48 “And he gathered a power” (Heb. חַיִל , i.e., an host), as in A.V.
See Ex. 14:4.

1 Kings 7:9 “From the foundation unto the coping.”
Heb. טְּפָחֹות (tephachoth), spans, put by Metonymy for the height:
i.e., from the foundation to the summit.

Job 6:22 “Give a reward (or perhaps “bribe”) for me of your strength”:
i.e., “of your substance,” as in A.V.; i.e., that which your strength has procured.

Job 31:26 “If I beheld the light when it shined.”
Here “the light” is put for the sun, as in A.V. (see margin).
So also 37:21 and Hab. 3:4.

Prov. 5:10 “Lest strangers be filled with thy strength”:
., thy wealth, as in the A.V.

Prov. 15:6 “In the house of the righteous is much strength”: 
i.e., treasure, as in the A.V.

Isa. 1:18 “Though your sins be as scarlet.”
It is a question whether here “sins” be not put for sinners.
Certainly persons are spoken of, and it is not easy to think of “sins,” as such,
becoming white! It is the sinner himself who is thus made “whiter than snow.”
Psa. 51:7.

Isa. 10:14 “And my hand hath found (or found means to reach)
as a nest the strength of the peoples”:
i.e., their riches, gotten by their strength, as in the A.V.

Isa. 10:27 “Because of the oil”:
i.e., the anointing, as in the A.V.
But, from the reference to Gideon’s exploits which we have in verse 26, the sense may be:
“And yoke snapt at sight of oil”:
i.e., as Midian’s yoke was distended till it snapt before the oil (or resin) burning in Gideon’s lamps, so will Asshur’s yoke, again, recoil (יָסוּר verse 26) from thy neck, before the hot “blast” (see 37:7, and compare Psa. 18:15 (16); see, too, 2 Thess. 2:8).

Isa. 30:6 “They will carry their strength (i.e., riches) upon the shoulders of young asses.”

Here “strength” is put for the riches and presents which Israel’s ambassadors were taking down to Egypt, to induce Egypt to help Israel against Assyria. In verses 2 and 3, “strength” is used literally. But in the next verse (7), it is put by Metonymy for “Egypt,” in whose strength they trusted.

.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 591
Isa. 30:7 “Their strength is to sit still.”

These words are usually taken as an exhortation to the Lord’s people to sit still and do nothing. But the fact is just the opposite. They are spoken of Egypt, on whom Israel was relying for help against the Assyrians. See verses 1, 3: “The strength of Pharaoh” was what they trusted in. But Jehovah declared that that would be a vain trust, for…..
. “The Egyptians shall help in vain, and to no purpose:
Therefore have I cried concerning this,
Their strength is to sit still :”
i.e., Egypt, when Israel’s ambassadors arrived there (verses 4-6),
would sit still, and not help them at all. “Strength” is put by Metonymy for Egypt,
in the strength of which Israel trusted.

Jer. 20:5 “Moreover I will deliver all the strength
(i.e., all the riches which are procured by strength)
of this city . . . into the hand of their enemies.”

Jer. 40:7 “And of the poverty of the Land”:
i.e., the poor people of the country.

Eze. 38:4 “And all thy power”:
i.e., “all thine army,” as in the A.V.

Matt. 8:3 “His leprosy was cleansed”:
i.e., the leper.
See verses 2, 3, and compare Mark 1:42.

Mark 14:54 And Peter “warmed himself at the light”:
i.e., at the fire, as in the A.V.
See John 18:18.

Acts 14:15 “We . . . preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities (i.e., idols) unto the living God.” Note that the term “Living God” is generally used when idols are mentioned or implied in the context (See 1 Thess. 1:9, 10, etc.).

Gal. 3:13 “Being made a curse for us”:
i.e., accursed, one under the curse of the Law.

Eph. 5:8 “For ye were sometimes darkness (i.e., dark and ignorant), but now are ye light
(i.e., enlightened ones) in the Lord.”

            ii. The CONTENTS, for that which contains them:
.                and what is placed, for the place where it is located.

Gen. 28:22 “And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God’s house”:
i.e., this place, of which the stone formed a part.

.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 592

Josh. 15:19 “Give me also springs of water”:
i.e., land containing them as well as the south land.

1 Chron. 9:24 In four winds were the porters”:
i.e., in the four quarters, as in the A.V. But see Jer. 49:32 below.

Psa. 135:7 “Bringing the wind out of His treasures”:
i.e., treasuries, as the A.V. here properly renders the figure.

Isa. 23:3 “The harvest of the river”:
i.e., the country through which the river flows.

Jer. 49:32 “I will scatter into all winds”:
i.e., all quarters (Heb., every wind).

Eze. 5:12 “I will scatter a third part into all the winds”:
i.e., into all quarters.

Eze. 26:5 “It shall be the spreading of nets”:
i.e., a place for the spreading of nets, as in the A.V.

Hos.9:6 “Thorns shall be in their tabernacles”:
i.e., in the places where their tents were formerly pitched.

Amos 8:5 “Saying. When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath that we may open wheat (i.e., granaries). Not “set forth wheat,” as in the A.V. The translators have stumbled over the verb (see margin) through not seeing the Metonymy of the noun.

Matt. 2:11 “And when they had opened their treasures”:
i.e., their treasuries or caskets containing them; good and precious presents.
So Psa. 135:7; Matt. 12:35, etc.

Matt. 12:35 “A good man out of the good “treasure”:
i.e., treasury.
The words “of the heart” go out of the Text with the Textual Critics and the R.V.
See footnote in Notes section at end.

Matt. 13:52 “Which bringeth forth out of his treasure (i.e.,. treasury)
things new and old.”

Matt. 24:31 “They shall gather his elect from the four winds”:
i.e., from the four quarters of the earth. The elect Nation of Israel is referred to.

Matt. 25:10 “They that were ready went in with him to the marriage”:
i.e., to the place where the marriage was to be celebrated.

Matt. 25:21, 23 “Enter thou into the joy of the lord”:
i.e., into the place where the lord manifested his joy.
.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 593
Luke 21:4 “All these have of their abundance cast in unto the offerings of God”:
i.e., into the chest or receptacle which received those offerings made to God.
Compare Matt. 15:5; 27:6.

Acts 16:13 “Where we supposed was prayer”:
i.e., a place of prayer. See verse 16.
The word rendered “supposed” means that they looked for and expected to find
a place of prayer as lawfully and legally allowed.
Compare Luke 3:23.

1 Cor. 9:24 “Know ye not that they which run in a race course (or stadium)”:
i.e., a race which is run there.

Gal. 2:12 “For before that certain came from James”:
i.e., from Jerusalem, where James presided.
See Acts 12:17; 21:18.

Heb. 12:1 Let us run the race course (or stadium)”:
i.e., the race which is run there.
So 1 Cor. 9:24.

Rev. 8:3 “And another angel came, having golden frankincense”:
i.e., a censer. See verse 5.

            iii. TIME is put for the things done in it, or existing in it.

                 1. The word Time or Times.

1 Chron. 12:32 (33) “And of the children of Issachar,
which were men that had understanding of the times”:
i.e., who understood what was going on and being done, and needful to be done.

Est. 1:13 “Then the king said to the wise men which knew the times”:
i.e., what was best to be done in connection with present and future events.

Job 11:17 “And above the noonday shall be thy time”:
i.e., thy prosperity shall be brighter and clearer than noon.

Psa. 31:15 (16) “My times (i.e., my affairs, and all that I do or that can be done to me)
are in thy hand.” All are known to Thee, according to Psa. 139:1.

2 Tim. 3:1 “This know also that in the last days difficult times will come”:
i.e., difficult things will be done: which things are described in verses 2-5.

.          2. AGE (αἰών, aiōn), a period of time, is put for what takes place in it.

Matt. 13:22 “The cares of this world”: lit., “of this age”:
i.e., the things of this life.
So Mark 4:19.

Luke 16:8 “The children of this world (i.e., of this age)”:
those who are living for the present things of this world.

.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 594
Rom. 12:2 “Be not conformed to this age”:
i.e., to the passing fashions, practices,and maxims of this world.

2 Cor. 4:4 “The god of this age”:
i.e., of the things done in, and of the people who live in and for, this world.

Eph. 2:2 “Wherein in time past ye walked according to the age of this world”:
i.e., according to the practices, and customs, and follies of the world.

Eph. 6:12 “The rulers of the darkness of this age”:
i.e., of all the dark things done in this world; the word “age”
pointing to a time coming when that rule will be done away.

See under Anaphora and Antimereia.

2 Tim. 4:10 “For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present age”:
i.e., the course and life of this world.

Heb. 1:2 “By whom also he made (or constituted) the ages”:
i.e., the world, and all that pertains to it.
So 11:3, where the verb is καταρτίζω [katartizō), to adjust, prepare, or restore.


            3. YEARS is put for what happens in them.

Prov. 5:9 “Lest thou give thine honour unto others, and thy years
(i.e., thy strength and labours and life) unto the cruel.”

.          4. DAY, or DAYS, is put for what transpires in them,
.              the context showing what it is.

Deut. 4:32 “For ask now of the days that are past”:
i.e., of what has been done in them, past history.

Job 18:20 “They that come after him shall be astonied at his day”:
i.e., at his fate.

Job 24:1 “Why, seeing times are not hidden from the Almighty,
do not they that know him see his days?”
i.e., understand His dealings with them.

Psa. 37:13 “The Lord shall laugh at him:
for he seeth that his day (i.e., his punishment) is coming.”

Psa. 137:7 “Remember, O Lord, the children of Edom in the day (i.e., calamities)
of Jerusalem; who said. Rase it, rase it, even to the foundations thereof.”

Isa. 13:6 “Howl ye; for the day (i.e., the judgment) of the Lord is at hand.”

Eze. 21:29 “The wicked, whose day is come”:
i.e., whose calamity or judgment shall have an end. Compare verse 25.
.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 595
Eze. 22:4 “Thou hast caused thy days (i.e., thy judgments) to draw near.”

Hos. 1:11 (2:2) “Great shall be the day of Jezreel”:
i.e.,, great shall be the day of Israel’s restoration, and recovery of  ” life from the dead.”

Joel 1:15 “Alas for the day! for the day (i.e., the judgment) of the Lord is at hand.”
So 2:1, 31 (3:4). Amos 5:20. Zeph. 1:14, 15, 16, 18; 2:2

Obad. 1:2 “Thou shouldest not have looked on the day (i.e., the calamity)
of thy brother.”

Micah 7:4 “The day of thy watchmen”:
i.e., the calamity which the watchmen will see coming.

Luke 17:22, 26 “The days of the Son of man”:
i.e., the day when Christ, as the second man, the Lord from heaven, shall assume universal dominion over the earth and execute the judgments necessary to secure it.

Luke 19:42 “If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day”:
i.e., in this time of grace, and of all the wonderful blessings which have been brought to thee.
See verse 44.

1 Cor. 4:3 “It is a very small thing that I should be judged of you, or of man’s day”*
i.e., by human judgment. For now is the time when man is judging; but the Lord’s day is coming, when He will judge.
* See Four Prophetic Periods, by the same author and publisher. Price one penny.

Eph. 5:16 “Redeeming the time, because the days are evil”:
i.e., because of the evil deeds that are done.
See Dan. 2:8 (margin) and LXX (both Versions: LXX and Theodotian).

.          5. HOUR is put for what is done at the time.

Mark 14:35 “And prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him:”
i.e., the suffering, etc.

John 12:27 “Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour (i.e., this time of trial): but for this cause came I unto this hour (i.e., these sufferings).”

.          6. END is put for that which takes place at the end.

Prov. 23:18 “For surely there is an end; and thine expectation shall not be cut off.”
Here, “end” is put for the reward which comes at the end.
See margin, and 24:14, 20.

.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 596

Jer. 29:11 “To give you an expected end”:
i.e., reward.
See under Hendiadys.

Jas. 5:11 “Ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end (i.e., the reward) of the Lord.”

1 Pet. 1:9 “Receiving the end (i.e., reward) of your faith.”

.          7. FEAST-DAY is put for the sacrifices offered at the Festival.

Ex. 23:18 “Neither shall the fat of my feast remain until the morning.”
Here, feast is put by Metonymy for the sacrifice offered on the day.
See margin.

Psa. 118:27 “Bind the feast (i.e., sacrifice) with cords.”

Isa. 29:1 “Woe to Ariel, to Ariel, the city where David dwelt! add ye year to year;
let them kill sacrifices.”
Here, the A.V. translates the Metonymy “sacrifices,” for which in the Hebrew is put “feasts”; lit., “kill the feasts”: i.e., the sacrifices. In Mal. 2:3, where it is so very clear, the A.V. leaves
the word “feasts” and does not render it, as in Isa. 29:1.

Mal. 2:3 “Spread dung upon your faces, even the dung of your solemn feasts”:
i.e., of your sacrifices.

        8. PASSOVER is put for the Lamb slain at the Passover.

Ex. 12:21 “Kill the Passover”:
i.e., the lamb.

2 Chron. 30:17 “Killing of the Passovers”:
i.e., the lambs.

Matt. 26:17 “To eat the Passover”:
i.e., the lamb.

Mark 14:12 “Killed the Passover”:
i.e., the lamb.

Mark 14:14 “Where I shall eat the Passover”:
i.e., the paschal lamb.

Luke 22:8 “Prepare us the Passover (i.e., the lamb), that we may eat.”

Luke 22:11 “Where I shall eat the Passover “: i.e, the lamb.

Luke 22:15 “With desire I have desired to eat this Passover”:
i e., this lamb.

.          9. SUMMER is put for the fruits gathered in it.

Isa. 16:9 “For the shouting for thy summer.”
Here, “summer” is put for the fruits of the summer, and is so rendered.
So 2 Sam. 16:1; Jer. 40:10, and Amos 8:1.
So the word “harvest” in the next clause is put for the corn and fruits of the harvest.

                                                                              .                                                                         . pg. 597

           10. HARVEST is put for the fruits of the harvest.

Deut. 24:19 “When thou cuttest down thine harvest”:
i.e., thy corn, etc.

Isa. 17:5 “And it shall be as when the harvestman gathereth the harvest
(i.e., the corn, as in the A.V.), and reapeth the ears with his arm.”

Joel 3:13 (4:13) “Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest (i.e., the corn) is ripe.”

.          11. FAST is used for the time of year at which the Fast fell.

Acts 27:9 “Because the fast was now already past”:
i.e., the time appointed for fasting, viz., the tenth day of the seventh month.

Lev. 23:27, 29 (about our Oct. 1, when sailing in those seas is specially dangerous).


 .           iv. The APPEARANCE of a thing, or an opinion about it, is put for the thing itself.

.            1. In NOUNS.

Jer. 28:5, 10 Hananiah is probably called a prophet, because he was reputed to be one. See verse 1.

Eze. 21:4 (9) “Seeing then that I will cut off from the righteous and the wicked.”
Here it is probably Metonymy, i.e., those who were reputed as righteous,
but were not so.
See verse 3 (8).

Matt. 8:12 “The children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness”:
i.e., those who were considered to be such as by outward privilege and inheritance were so.

Matt. 9:13 “I am not come to call the righteous (i.e., righteous in their own eyes).”

Luke 2:48 “Behold, thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing”:
i.e., reputed father.
See 3:23, and compare John 6:42.

1 Cor. 1:21 “The foolishness of preaching.”
The preaching of the gospel is not foolishness, but man thinks it is,
and hence it is here so-called.

1 Cor. 1:25 “The foolishness of God”:
i.e., that which man thinks foolishness. Compare verse 18.

2 Cor. 4:4 “The god of this world.”
Not that the Devil is really the God, but that the world takes him for such.
See above, and compare Matt. 4:9; Luke 4:6, 7.

.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 598

Gal. 1:6 “Another gospel”: it was not the Gospel, though it was so called.

Tit. 1:12 “A prophet of their own.”
Epiminedes was not a prophet except in the opinion of the Cretans.
See under Gnome.

Jas. 2:14, 17, 20, 24, 26 The “faith” here is not real faith, but that which passed for such;being only the external profession.

.            2. VERBS.

Matt. 14:9 “And the king was sorry” (or appeared to be sorry).

Mark 6:48 “And would have passed by them,” at least, so they thought.


.            3. CONNECTED WORDS or sentences.


2 Sam. 22:8 “The foundations of heaven moved and shook”:
i.e., the mountains on which the heavens appear to rest.
So also Job 16:11 “The pillars of heaven tremble.”

Psa. 72:9 “His enemies shall lick the dust”:
i.e., shall be so humbled and prostrate as though they were licking the dust.

Isa. 13:5 “From the end of heaven”:
, from where the earth seems to touch the heaven.
So Deut. 4:32; 30:4; Neh. 1:9; Matt. 24:31.


.            v. The ACTION or AFFECTION relating to an object is put for the object itself.

.            1. The Senses are put for the object of them, or for the things which are                               .                perceived by the senses.

Lev. 13:55 “And if the plague have not changed his eye”:
i.e., his colour.

Num. 11:7 “And the eye of it as the eye of bdellium.” (See A.V. margin).

Here “eye” is put for colour, because it is the eye which sees and distinguishes colour.

Psa. 112:7 “He will not be afraid of evil hearing”:
i.e., of what he may hear; rumour, common talk, or, as the A.V., evil tidings.

Prov. 23:31 “When it giveth his eye (i.e., colour) in the cup.”
.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 599
Isa. 28:9 “Whom shall he make to understand the hearing?”
i.e., as in the A.V., the doctrine.
(See A.V. margin).

Isa. 28:19 “And it shall be a vexation only to understand the hearing”:
i.e., the rumour.

Isa. 53:1 “Who hath believed our hearing”:
i.e., what they have heard: i.e., our report, as in the A.V.
So John 12:38; Rom. 10:16; Gal. 3:2, 5.

Eze. 1:4 “As the eye (i.e., colour) of amber.” So 8:2; 10:9.

Eze. 7:26 Here, the Metonymy is boldly translated “rumour upon rumour.”
Lit., “hearing upon hearing.”

Hab. 3:2 “O Lord, I have heard thy hearing”:
i.e., thy words, what thou hast said for me to hear. A.V. : “speech” (but see margin).
See under Polyptoton.

Obad. 1 “We have heard a hearing from the Lord”:
i.e., a. rumour, as in the A.V.

Matt. 4:24 “And his hearing went throughout all Syria”:
i.e., his fame; what was heard; as A.V. So 14:1; Mark 1:28.

Matt. 24:6 “And hearing (i.e., rumours) of wars.”
So Mark 13:7; John 12:38. See Isa. 53:1.


.            2. FAITH is put for the thing believed.

Acts 6:7 “And a great company of the Priests were obedient to the faith”:
i.e., to the doctrine believed.

Gal. 1:23 “He . . . now preacheth the faith which once be destroyed”:
i.e., the doctrine which he had now believed.

Gal. 3:23 “Before faith came”:
i.e., before the true doctrine of the Gospel was revealed.

Gal. 5:5 “We through the Spirit wait for the hope of righteousness by faith”:
i.e., life eternal, which is promised to the righteous by faith:
“The just shall live (i.e., have eternal life) by faith.”

Eph. 4:5 “One Lord, one faith (i.e., doctrine), one baptism.”

1 Tim. 4:1 “Some shall depart from the faith”:
i.e., from the doctrine of Christ.
See under Tapeinosis and Synathroesmus.

Tit. 1:13 “That they may be sound in the faith”:
i.e., the doctrine of the Gospel.

.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 600
Jude 3 “Earnestly contend for the faith”:
i.e., the true doctrine of Christ.

Rev. 2:13 “And hast not denied my faith”:
i e., the doctrine believed concerning me.

.          3. HOPE is put for God, or for the object on which it is set.

Psa. 71:5 “ Thou art my hope”:
i.e., the One in whom I hope.

Isa. 20:5 “ They shall be afraid and ashamed of Ethiopia their expectation
(i.e., the help they expected from the Ethiopians) and of Egypt their glory
(i.e., the Egyptians in whom they gloried).” See verse 6.

Prov. 13:12 “Hope deferred maketh the heart sick.”
Here, it is not hope that is deferred, but the object hoped for.

Jer. 14:8 “O the hope of Israel, the saviour thereof in time of trouble”:
i.e., the God in Whom Israel hopes.

Jer. 17:7 “ Whose hope the Lord is.”

Jer. 17:13 “ The hope of Israel ”: the God in Whom Israel hoped.

Jer. 50:7 “The hope of their fathers”:
i.e., the God in Whom their fathers hoped.

Acts 28:20 “For the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain”:
i.e., for the Messiah’s sake. Whom Israel hoped for. See 26:6-8.

Rom. 8:24 “Hope (i.e., the object hoped for) that is seen is not hope.”
See Epanadiplosis.

1 Tim. 1:1 “The Lord Jesus Christ, our hope”:
i.e., Who is the object of our hope.


Tit. 2:13 “Looking for that blessed hope”:
i.e., that blessed object of hope, the coming of Christ.


         4. LOVE is put for the person or object loved.

Jer. 2:33 “Why trimmest thou thy way to seek love?”
i.e., an object to love.

Jer. 12:7 “I have given the love of my soul into the hand of her enemies”:
i.e., the dearly beloved, as in A.V. See margin.

Hos. 9:10 “Their abominations were according to their love”:
i.e., to their idols, which were the objects of their love.
Not “as they loved,” as in the A.V.

.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 601

           5. DESIRE is put for the person or thing desired.

Gen. 27:15 “And Rebekah took desirable of her eldest son Esau”:
i.e., the coveted raiment which perhaps Jacob had desired.

Isa. 32:12 “They shall lament for the teats, for the fields of desire”:
i.e., which they desired. The A.V. has treated it as Enallage, and rendered it
“pleasant fields.”
See margin.

Isa. 44:9 “Their delectable things shall not profit”:
i.e., their things which they have desired.

Jer. 3:19 “How shall I give thee a land of desire”: i.e., a land to be desired.
See A.V. margin.

Lam. 1:7 “Jerusalem remembered … all her things of desire”:
i.e., all the things she had desired.
The A.V. renders it by Enallage, “pleasant,” and, in margin, desirable.
See Young’s Literal Translation, Lam. 1:7. So verse 10.

Lam. 2:4 “He stood with his right hand as an adversary,
and slew all the desires of the eye”:
i.e., all the objects that the eye desired.
See YLT 2:4.

Eze. 24:16 “The desire of thine eyes”:
i.e., thy wife, who is the object of thy desire.
See under Periphrasis, and compare verses 18, 21 and 25.

Dan. 9:23 “ Thou art a man of desires”:
i.e., a man greatly to be desired.
Or, as the A.V. , “greatly beloved.” See YLT 9:23; 10:11, and verse 19.

Hos. 9:16 “Yet will I slay the desires of their womb”:i.e., that which the womb had desired and brought forth. See מַחְמָד.

Amos 5:11 “Ye have planted vineyards of desire”:
i.e., vineyards which ye had desired.
See the A.V. margin.

Hag. 2:7 “The desire of all nations shall come”:
i.e., Christ, who shall be the object desired by all nations.


1 John 2:16 “ The lust of the eyes”:
i.e., that which the eyes desire.


           6. FEAR is put for God who is feared, or for any object of fear.

Gen. 31:42 “The fear of Isaac”:
i.e., the God whom Isaac feared.
So verse 53.

Psa. 53:5 (6) “There were they in great fear.”
Heb.: “There they feared a fear”:
i.e., there was something that they were greatly afraid of.
See under Polyptoton.


Isa. 8:13 “Sanctify the Lord of hosts himself; and let him be your fear”:
i.e., the God Whom ye shall fear.

.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 602

Prov. 1:26 “I will mock when your fear cometh”:
i.e., when that which you fear shall come. So verse 27.

Prov. 3:25 “Be not afraid of sudden fear”:
i.e., of a sudden think to be feared.
See under Antimereia.


2 Cor. 5:11 “Knowing, then, the fear of the Lord”:
i.e., knowing, therefore, the Lord as one who is to be feared.


         7. OTHER ACTIONS are put for the object connected with, or related to them;
.               which object is shown by the context.

Gen. 43:11 “Take of the praise of the earth”:
i.e., the fruits which adorn and beautify the earth.
The Chaldee has “which is praised in the earth”;
and the Heb.:זָמַר means to adorn.
See the first occurrence in Judges 5:3 (in Piel ), where it is used in connection with a song in praise of God. But זָמַר does not mean primarily to praise, but to embellish or adorn or trim the song.


Ex. 15:2 “The Lord is my strength and song”:
i.e.. He whom I praise in my song.
So Psa. 118:14, and compare verses 15, 16.
Here, “strength” is the Metonymy of effect:
i.e., producing strength in me. So that the whole verse means:
“ Jah maketh me strong, and is the subject of my song.”

Deut. 28:8 “And in every sending forth of thy hand”:
i.e., all things which thy hand accomplishes. So 12:7.

1 Sam. 1:27 “And the Lord hath given me my petition (i.e., Samuel)
which I asked Him for”:
i.e., the object of my prayer.
See under Paronomasia.

Job 6:8 “Oh that I might have my request; and that God would grant me my expectation”:
i.e., the object of my prayer and desire. See A.V. margin.

Isa. 60:1 “Arise, shine; for thy light (i.e.. He who is thy light) is come.”

Luke 16:15 “That which is highly esteemed among men
is abomination in the sight of God”:
i.e., a thing abominated by God.

Acts 1:4 “They should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father”:
i.e., that which the Father had promised.


Gal. 3:2, 5 “The hearing of faith”:
i.e., the report which faith believed.
.                                                                                .                                                                       pg. 603*
2 Thess. 1:11 “We pray . . . that our God would count you worthy of this calling”:
., of that for which He has called you: viz.,* to deliver you out of the tribulation;
so that He may be glorified in His saints before He comes forth “in flaming fire,” etc. (verses 8 and 9). For that coming forth in judgment will not take place until He shall have come (ἔλθῃ elthee), thus to be glorified: ἔλθῃ is the 2nd Aor. Subj. Compare its use in Matt. 21:40; Luke 17:10; Mark 8:38; John 4:25; 16:13; Acts 23:35; Rom. 11:27; 1 Cor. 16:3; 2 Cor. 3:16, etc.

Heb. 11:13 “These all died in faith, not having received the promises”:
i.e., the things which had been promised.
The promises were what they had received, but not the things promised.


           vi. The SIGN is put for the thing signified.

           1. NOUNS.

Gen. 49:10 “The sceptre shall not depart from Judah . . . until Shiloh come.”
Here the sceptre (i.e., the Rod of tribal supremacy) is put for Him who is entitled to hold it.
So Isa 14:5; Zech. 10:11, etc.


Ex. 18:10 “Blessed be the Lord, who hath delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh, who hath delivered the people out of the hand of the Egyptians.”
Here the “hand” is put for power, of which it is the sign; and it is repeated three times in order to emphasize the greatness of the power and the wonderful deliverance from it.

Num. 18:8 “By reason of the anointing.”
Here, the anointing is put for the Priesthood, of which it was the sign.

2 Sam. 12:10 “The sword shall never depart from thy house”: 
i.e., manifested hostility.

1 Kings 19:10 “Thrown down thy altars”:
i.e., given up thy worship (of which the altars were the sign and symbol).

Job 5:21 “ Thou shalt be hid from the scourge (i.e., power) of the tongue.”

Psa. 23:4 “ Thy rod and thy staff’ they comfort me”:
i.e., Thy care and Thy defence, of which these were the signs. The Shepherd carried two implements: viz., the “rod,” to help the sheep, and the “club,” to destroy the sheep’s enemies.


Psa. 44:6 (7) “I will not trust in my bow, neither shall my sword save me”:
i.e., military science, of which the bow and sword were the signs.

Psa. 89:4 (5) “Thy seed will I establish for ever,
and build up thy throne to all generations”:
i.e., will raise up those (esp. One) who shall sit upon it.

.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 604
Psa. 89:39 (40) “ Thou hast profound his crown by casting it to the ground”:
i.e., thou hast removed him from his kingly position.

Isa. 2:4 “Here, swords and plowshares, etc., are used for war and peace,
of which they were the signs and symbols.
See also under
Polysyndeton and Syllogismus.

Jer. 47:5 “Baldness is come upon Gaza”:
i.e., grief, from the practice of shaving the head in grief.”

Lam. 5:9 “We gat our bread with our lives (i.e., with peril of our lives, as in the A.V.), because of the sword (i.e., the fightings) of the wilderness.”
Eze. 21:3, 4 (8, 9).

Eze. 7:15 “The sword (i.e., war, or destruction) is without.”

Eze. 21:26 “Remove the diadem, and take off the crown.”
Here the diadem and crown are put for the symbols of royalty of him who wears them.


Matt. 23:2 “ The Scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat.”
Here “sit” is put for public teaching. (
Matt. 26:55; Luke 4:20; John 8:2; Acts 22:3),
or for judgment (
Ex. 18:13; Judg. 5:10; Matt. 27:19; Psa. 29:10; 110:1).
“Moses” is put for the Law and precepts and authority of Moses.
“Seat” is put for right, authority or rule.

Rom. 13:4 “He weareth not the sword in vain”:
i.e., he does not wear merely the sign, but he has the power which it signifies.

Luke 11:52 “Ye have taken away the key of knowledge”:
i.e., the means or power of entering into, or the right of attaining knowledge.

Acts 15:10 “Now therefore why tempt ye God, to put a yoke (i.e. , a burden)
on the neck of the disciples.”

Rev. 3:7 “The key of David.”
The key is put for governmental authority, of which it is the sign.


           2. VERBS.


Gen. 21:6 “And Sarah said, God hath made me to laugh (i.e. to rejoice),
so that all that hear will laugh (i.e., rejoice) with me.”

.                                                                                .                                                                        . pg. 605

Gen. 31:49 “ The Lord protect us when we are hidden (i.e., absent) from one another.”
The Metonymy is used so as to imply that though hidden from one another,
they were not hidden from God.

Gen. 41:40 “ Thou (Joseph) shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people kiss”:
i.e., be ruled or in subjection.
See Psa. 2:12 below, and the A.V. margin.

Deut. 10:8 “ To stand (i.e., to minister) before the Lord.”

Deut. 22:1 “ Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ox or his sheep go astray,
and hide thyself from them”:
i.e., go away and leave them.

1 Kings 19:18 “ Yet I have left me seven thousand in Israel,
all the knees which have not bowed unto Baal, and every mouth which hath not kissed him”:
i.e., have not obeyed or worshipped him.

Job 5:22 “At destruction and famine thou shalt laugh”:
i.e., thou shalt be secure against them.

Job 8:21 “ Till he fill thy mouth with laughing (i.e., rejoicing),
and thy lips with shouting for joy.”
See A.V. margin.

Job 31:27 “And my heart hath been secretly enticed, or my mouth hath kissed my hand”:
i.e., I have made the outward sign of worship or homage.

Psa. 2:12 “Kiss the Son”:
i.e., submit to the Son, be ruled by Him.
See Gen. 41:40 above; and see under Ellipsis and Epiphonema.

Psa. 3:5 (6) “I laid me down and slept”:
i.e., was secure.

Psa. 4:8 (9) “I will both lay me down in peace, and sleep (i.e., be perfectly secure):
for thou, Lord, only makest me dwell in safety.”

Psa. 10:5 “As for all his enemies he bloweth upon them”:
i.e., he despiseth them. A.V. : puffeth at them.

Psa. 12:5 (6) “For the oppression of the poor, for the sighing of the needy,
now will I arise, saith Jehovah; I will set him (i.e., each one) in safety:
he bloweth upon (i.e., he despiseth) it (i.e., the oppression).”
The poor and needy being set in safety by Jehovah, despise the oppression of the enemy. Such have the sure words of Jehovah, and can despise the vain words of man.

Psa. 27:5 “In the time of trouble he shall hide (i.e., protect) me in his pavilion:
in the secret of his tabernacle shall he hide (i.e., protect) me.”

Psa. 31:20 (21) “ Thou shalt hide them (i.e., protect them)
in the secret of thy presence from the pride of man.”
.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 606

Psa. 64:2 (3) “Hide (i.e., protect) me from the secret counsel of the wicked.”

Psa. 126:2 “ Then was our mouth filled with laughter (i.e., with rejoicing),
and our tongue with singing.”

Eze. 8:11 “And there stood (i.e., ministered) before them seventy men.” etc.

Zech. 3:1 “And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing (i.e., ministering)
before the angel of the Lord.”


Matt. 5:47 “If ye embrace (i.e., salute or welcome) your brethren only,
what do ye more than others?”
Compare Heb. 11:13.

Luke 6:21 “For ye shall laugh”: i.e., rejoice ;
and verse 25: “Ye that laugh (i.e., rejoice) now.”

Heb. 11:13 “And embraced them”:
i.e., welcomed, believed, and hoped for them: i.e., the” promises.


           3. Connected WORDS and PHRASES.

                To BIND and LOOSE put for exercising of authority.

Matt. 16:19 “And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven:
and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven:
and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.”

Matt. 18:18 “ Verily I say unto you,
Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven:
and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.


           To OPEN and SHUT is put for power of administration.

Job 12:14 “Behold, he breaketh down, and it cannot be built again:
he shutteth up a man, and there can be no opening.”


Isa. 22:22 “And the key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder;
so he shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open.”


Rev. 3:7 “And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write;
These things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David,
he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth.”


           To be STIFF-NECKED is put for pride and obstinacy.

Psa. 75:5 (6). Here it is a question whether the letter Aleph (א) was not wrongly
inserted in the text. If so, it alters the whole sense, and the verse should read:
“Lift not up your horn on high, nor speak arrogantly of the Rock:”
where the Rock is put by Metonymy of adjunct for God.
See also 2 Chron. 30:8.

.          CLEANNESS OF TEETH put for famine.

Amos 4:6 “ And I also have given you cleanness of teeth in all your cities,
and want of bread in all your places: yet have ye not returned unto me,
saith the LORD.”


           To LIFT UP THE EYES is put for implore or pray.

Psa. 121:1 “ I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence cometh my help”

Psa 123:1 “ Unto thee lift I up mine eyes, O thou that dwellest in the heavens”.

Eze. 18:6 “ (And) hath not eaten upon the mountains,
neither hath lifted up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel,
neither hath defiled his neighbour’s wife,
neither hath come near to a menstruous woman,” .

Eze. 18:15 “(That) hath not eaten upon the mountains,
neither hath lifted up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel,
hath not defiled his neighbour’s wife,”.

           To LIFT UP THE HEAD is put for lifting up the soul,
.           or taking courage, or rejoicing.

Judges 8:28 “ Thus was Midian subdued before the children of Israel,
so that they lifted up their heads no more. And the country was in quietness forty years in the days of Gideon.”

Psa. 83:2 “For, lo, thine enemies make a tumult:
and they that hate thee have lifted up the head. ”

Luke 21:28 “And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up,
and lift up your heads; for your redemption draweth nigh.”


         To LIFT UP THE FACE is put for boldness and courage.

Deut. 28:50 (margin) “A nation of fierce countenance, which shall not regard the person of the old, nor shew favour to the young:”

Num. 6:26 “ The LORD lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace.”

Ecc. 8:1 “Who (is) as the wise (man)? and who knoweth the interpretation of a thing?
a man’s wisdom maketh his face to shine, and the boldness of his face shall be changed. ”

Dan. 8:23 “And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come
to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.”

To STRENGTHEN THE FACE is put for boldness or impudence.

Prov. 7:13 “So she caught him, and kissed him, (and) with an impudent face said unto him,”

.           is put for self condemnation, or condemnation.

2 Sam. 15:30 “And David went up by the ascent of (mount) Olivet,
and wept as he went up, and had his head covered, and he went barefoot:
and all the people that (was) with him covered every man his head, and they went up, weeping as they went up.”

2 Sam. 19:4 “But the king covered his face, and the king cried with a loud voice,
O my son Absalom,
O Absalom, my son, my son!”

Job 9:24 “ The earth is given into the hand of the wicked:
he covereth the faces of the judges thereof; if not, where, (and) who (is) he?”

Est. 7:8 “ Then the king returned out of the palace garden into the place of the banquet of wine; and Haman was fallen upon the bed whereon Esther (was).
Then said the king, Will he force the queen also before me in the house?
As the word went out of the king’s mouth, they covered Haman’s face.”

Jer. 14:4 “Because the ground is chapt, for there was no rain in the earth,
the plowmen were ashamed, they covered their heads.”


           The face TO WAX PALE is put for being afraid.

Isa. 29:22 “ Therefore thus saith the LORD, who redeemed Abraham, concerning the house of Jacob, Jacob shall not now be ashamed, neither shall his face now wax pale.”

.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 607

           To have A WHORE’S FOREHEAD is put for impudence.

Jer. 3:3 “ Therefore the showers have been withholden, and there hath been no latter rain; and thou hadst a whore’s forehead, thou refusedst to be ashamed.”


           To BEND THE KNEE is put for compulsory submission.

Isa. 45:23 “I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth (in) righteousness, and shall not return, That unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear.”

Rom. 14:11 “For it is written, (As) I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God.”


Phil. 2:10 “That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of (things) in heaven, and (things ) in earth, and (things) under the earth;”


          To GIVE THE HAND is put for voluntary submission.


1 Chron. 29:24 “And all the princes, and the mighty men, and all the sons likewise of king David, submitted themselves unto Solomon the king.”
YLT “and all the heads, and the mighty men, and also all the sons of king David have given a hand under Solomon the king;”


2 Chron. 30:8 “Now be ye not stiffnecked, as your fathers (were, but) yield yourselves unto the LORD, and enter into his sanctuary, which he hath sanctified for ever: and serve the LORD your God, that the fierceness of his wrath may turn away from you.”
YLT “Now, harden not your neck like your fathers, give a hand to Jehovah, and come in to His sanctuary, that He hath sanctified to the age, and serve Jehovah your God, and the fierceness of His anger doth turn back from you;”
Also put for fellowship or confederacy.

Lam. 5:6 “We have given the hand (to) the Egyptians, (and to) the Assyrians, to be satisfied with bread.”

Jer. 1:15 “For, lo, I will call all the families of the kingdoms of the north, saith the LORD; and they shall come, and they shall set every one his throne at the entering of the gates of Jerusalem, and against all the walls thereof round about, and against all the cities of Judah.”

Eze. 17:18 “Seeing he despised the oath by breaking the covenant, when, lo, he had given his hand, and hath done all these (things), he shall not escape. ”

Gal. 2:9 “And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we (should go) unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision.”


          To PLACE THE HAND ON is put for association.

Lev. 6:2 “If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and lie unto his neighbour in that which was delivered him to keep, or in fellowship, or in a thing taken away by violence, or hath deceived his neighbour”. (בִתְשׂוּמֶת יָד).


           To LIFT UP THE HAND, or hands
.           is put for swearing an oath, or making a promise.

Gen. 14:22 “And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lift up mine hand unto the LORD, the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth”.

Ex. 6:8 “And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning the which I did swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for an heritage: I (am) the LORD. ”

Psa. 106:26 “ Therefore he lifted up his hand against them, to overthrow them in the wilderness”.

Isa. 3:7 (marg.) In that day shall he swear, saying, I will not be an healer; for in my house (is) neither bread nor clothing: make me not a ruler of the people.
(DBY) “…he will lift up his handin that day, saying, I cannot be a healer, and in my house there is neither bread nor clothing; ye shall not make me a chief of the people.”

.          Put also for PRAYING.

Psa. 28:2 “Hear the voice of my supplications, when I cry unto thee, when I lift up my hands toward thy holy oracle.”

Psa 68:31 (32) “Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God.”

1 Tim. 2:8 “I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting.”


           To STRIKE HANDS is put for making a promise, or bargain.

Job. 17:3 “Lay down now, put me in a surety with thee; who (is) he (that) will strike hands with me?”



           To PUT HANDS ON the head is put for grief.

Jer. 2:37 “Yea, thou shalt go forth from him, and thine hands upon thine head: for the LORD hath rejected thy confidences, and thou shalt not prosper in them. ”

2 Sam. 13:19 “And Tamar put ashes on her head, and rent her garment of divers colours that (was) on her, and laid her hand on her head, and went on crying.”

.           is put for silence, or for having no answer.

Judges 18:19 “And they said unto him, Hold thy peace, lay thine hand upon thy mouth, and go with us, and be to us a father and a priest: (is it) better for thee to be a priest unto the house of one man, or that thou be a priest unto a tribe and a family in Israel?”

Job 21:5 “Mark me, and be astonished, and lay (your) hand upon (your) mouth. ”

Job 29:9 “The princes refrained talking, and laid their hand on their mouth.

Job 40:4 “Behold, I am vile; what shall I answer thee? I will lay mine hand upon my mouth.”

Micah 7:16 “ The nations shall see and be confounded at all their might: they shall lay (their) hand upon (their) mouth, their ears shall be deaf.”


           To POUR WATER ON THE HANDS is put for serving.

2 Kings 3:11 “But Jehoshaphat said, (Is there) not here a prophet of the LORD, that we may enquire of the LORD by him? And one of the king of Israel’s servants answered and said, Here (is) Elisha the son of Shaphat, which poured water on the hands of Elijah.”


.          is put for consecrating anyone to a sacred office,
.          because the person so appointed received the sign
.          or symbol of the office in his hands.


Ex. 28:41 “And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate *them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest’s office.”
(* see footnote)


Ex.29:9 “And thou shalt gird them with girdles, Aaron and his sons, and put the bonnets on them: and the priest’s office shall be theirs for a perpetual statute: and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons.”

Ex. 29:33 “And they shall eat those things wherewith the atonement was made, to consecrate (and) to sanctify them: but a stranger shall not eat (thereof), because they (are) holy.”

Ex. 29:35 “And thus shalt thou do unto Aaron, and to his sons, according to all (things) which I have commanded thee: seven days shalt thou consecrate them.”

Ex.32:29 (marg.) “For Moses had said, Consecrate yourselves to day to the LORD, even every man upon his son, and upon his brother; that he may bestow upon you a blessing this day.”

Lev. 8:33 “And ye shall not go out of the door of the tabernacle of the congregation (in) seven days, until the days of your consecration be at an end:
for seven days shall he consecrate you.”

Lev. 16:32 “And the priest, whom he shall anoint, and whom he shall consecrate
to minister in the priest’s office in his father’s stead, shall make the atonement,
and shall put on the linen clothes, (even) the holy garments:

Num. 3:3 “ These (are) the names of the sons of Aaron, the priests which were anointed, whom he consecrated to minister in the priest’s office.”

Judges 17:5 “And the man Micah had an house of gods, and made an ephod,
and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.”

Judges 17:12 “And Micah consecrated the Levite; and the young man became his priest, and was in the house of Micah.” etc.


           To COVER THE FEET is put for performing a duty of nature, because when stooping the garments fell over the feet. This is a beautiful example of Euphemy (q.v.).

Judges 13:24 “When he was gone out, his servants came; and when they saw that, behold, the doors of the parlour (were) locked, they said, Surely he covereth his feet
in his summer chamber.”


1 Sam. 24:3 “And he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where (was) a cave;
and Saul went in to cover his feet: and David and his men remained in the sides of the cave.”

.          EATING AND DRINKING is put for living or being alive.

Ex. 24:11 “And upon the nobles of the children of Israel he laid not his hand:
also they saw God, and did eat and drink.”

Similarly LOOKING is used in Gen. 16:13, because Hagar had seen God and yet lived.
Compare Gen. 32:30 and Judges 13:22.


           The BREAKING OF BONDS (of various kinds)
.           is put for liberating from servitude.

Psa. 2:3 “Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us.”


           The CLOTHING IN SACKCLOTH put for sorrowing.

Job 16:15 “I have sewed sackcloth upon my skin, and defiled my horn in the dust.”

Psa. 35:13 “But as for me, when they were sick, my clothing (was) sackcloth:
I humbled my soul with fasting; and my prayer returned into mine own bosom.”

Psa. 69:11 (12) “I made sackcloth also my garment; and I became a proverb to them.”

Lam. 2:10 “ The elders of the daughter of Zion sit upon the ground, (and) keep silence: they have cast up dust upon their heads; they have girded themselves with sackcloth: the virgins of Jerusalem hang down their heads to the ground.”

Joel 1:13 “Gird yourselves, and lament, ye priests: howl, ye ministers of the altar: come, lie all night in sackcloth, ye ministers of my God: for the meat offering and
the drink offering is withholden from the house of your God.”

Amos 8:10 “And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation; and I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness upon every head; and I will make it as the mourning of an only (son), and the end thereof as a bitter day.” etc.


           MAKING BALD is put for grieving.

Micah 1:16 “Make thee bald, and poll thee for thy delicate children;
enlarge thy baldness as the eagle; for they are gone into captivity from thee.”


           LICKING THE DUST is put for defeat and submission.

Isa. 49:23 “And kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers: they shall bow down to thee with (their) face toward the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet; and thou shalt know that I (am) the LORD: for they shall not be ashamed that wait for me.”


Psa. 72:9 “ They that dwell in the wilderness shall bow before him;
and his enemies shall lick the dust.”


           SMITING THE THIGH is put for grief.


Jer. 31:19 “Surely after that I was turned, I repented; and after that I was instructed,
I smote upon (my) thigh: I was ashamed, yea, even confounded, because I did bear the reproach of my youth.”
So also is Sitting on the ground.

Lam. 2:10 “ The elders of the daughter of Zion sit upon the ground, (and) keep silence: they have cast up dust upon their heads; they have girded themselves with sackcloth: the virgins of Jerusalem hang down their heads to the ground.”

.                                                                                .                                                                          pg. 608

.           is put for extreme youth.


Jonah 4:11 “And should not I spare Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than sixscore thousand persons that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand; and (also) much cattle?”


           (3.a). THE WHOLE UTTERANCE, which may consist of admonition,
.                       instruction, etc., sometimes consists of sign or symbol,
                         and the signs are thus put for the things signified.

2 Kings 4:29 The instructions given by Elisha to Gehazi.
“ Then he said to Gehazi, Gird up thy loins, and take my staff in thine hand,
and go thy way: if thou meet any man, salute him not; and if any salute thee,
answer him not again: and lay my staff upon the face of the child.”

Jer. 9:17, 18 Jehovah to Jeremiah.
“ Thus saith the LORD of hosts, Consider ye, and call for the mourning women,
that they may come; and send for cunning (women), that they may come”.

Jer. 10:18 “For thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will sling out the inhabitants of the land at this once, and will distress them, that they may find (it so.)”
And compare verses 9, 19, 20.

See also Jer. 46:19 “ O thou daughter dwelling in Egypt, furnish thyself to go into captivity: for Noph shall be waste and desolate without an inhabitant.”

Eze. 39:9, 10 “And they that dwell in the cities of Israel shall go forth, and shall set on fire and burn the weapons, both the shields and the bucklers, the bows and the arrows, and the handstaves, and the spears, and they shall burn them with fire seven years:
So that they shall take no wood out of the field, neither cut down any) out of the forests; for they shall burn the weapons with fire: and they shall spoil those that spoiled them, and rob those that robbed them, saith the Lord GOD.”

Isa. 2:4 “And he shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people:
and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruninghooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.”

Amos 5:16 “ Therefore the LORD, the God of hosts, the Lord, saith thus;
Wailing (shall be) in all streets; and they shall say in all the highways,
Alas! alas! and they shall call the husbandman to mourning,
and such as are skilful of lamentation to wailing.”

Matt. 24:20 “But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter,
neither on the sabbath day:”

Luke 22:36, 38
“ Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take (it),
and likewise (his) scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment,
and buy one.”
“And they said, Lord, behold, here (are) two swords. And he said unto them,
It is enough.”

 .        vii. THE NAME OF A  PERSON for the person himself;
.                 or THE NAME OF A THING for the thing itself.

2 Cor. 7:3 “I speak not (this ) to condemn (you): for I have said before, that ye are in our hearts to die and live with (you).”


        (1) The PERSON, when that person is Divine.

Deut. 28:58 “If thou wilt not observe to do all the words of this law
that are written in this book, that thou mayest fear this glorious and fearful name,

Psa. 20:1(2) “ The LORD hear thee in the day of trouble;
the name of the God of Jacob defend thee ”.

Psa. 115:1 “Not unto us, O LORD, not unto us, but unto thy name give glory,
for thy mercy, (and) for thy truth’s sake.”

Prov.18:10 “ The name of the LORD (is) a strong tower:
the righteous runneth into it, and is safe.”

Isa. 30:27 “Behold, the name of the LORD cometh from far, burning (with) his anger, and the burden (thereof is) heavy: his lips are full of indignation, and his tongue as a devouring fire”.


Jer. 10:25 “ Pour out thy fury upon the heathen that know thee not, and upon the families that call not on thy name: for they have eaten up Jacob, and devoured him, and consumed him, and have made his habitation desolate.”

Micah 5:4 (3) “And he shall stand and feed in the strength of the LORD,
in the majesty of the name of the LORD his God; and they shall abide:
for now shall he be great unto the ends of the earth.”

John 1:12 “But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become
the sons of God, (even) to them that believe on his name:”

John 3:18 “He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.”

John 17:6 “ I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest me out of
the world: thine they were, and thou gavest them me; and they have kept thy word.”

John 20:31 “But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ,
the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name.”

Acts 3:16 “And his name through faith in his name hath made this man strong,
whom ye see and know: yea, the faith which is by him hath given him this perfect soundness in the presence of you all.”

Acts 4:12 “Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name
under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.”

Acts 5:41 “And they departed from the presence of the council, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer shame for his name.”

Acts 10:43 “ To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins.”

1 John 2:12 “I write unto you, little children, because your sins are forgiven you for his name’s sake.” etc.

       (2) When THE PERSON is HUMAN.

Acts 1:15 “And in those days Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples, and said,
(the number of names together were about an hundred and twenty,)”.

Rev. 3:4 “ Thou hast a few names even in Sardis which have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with me in white: for they are worthy.”

Rev. 11:13 (margin) “And the same hour was there a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell, and in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand: and the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the God of heaven. ” etc.


          (3) THE NAME of a man for his POSTERITY.

Deut. 25:17 “Remember what Amalek did unto thee by the way, when ye were come forth out of Egypt”.

Ex. 5:2 “And Pharaoh said, Who is the LORD, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? I know not the LORD, neither will I let Israel go.”

Num. 23:21 “He hath not beheld iniquity in Jacob, neither hath he seen perverseness in Israel: the LORD his God (is) with him, and the shout of a king (is) among them.”

Num. 24:5 “How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, (and) thy tabernacles, O Israel!”

Num. 24:17 “I shall see him, but not now:
I shall behold him, but not nigh:
there shall come a Star out of Jacob,
and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel,
and shall smite the corners of Moab,
and destroy all the children of Sheth.”

Deut. 33:28 “Israel then shall dwell in safety alone: the fountain of Jacob (shall be) upon a land of corn and wine; also his heavens shall drop down dew.”

1 Kings 18:17, 18 “And it came to pass, when Ahab saw Elijah, that Ahab said unto him, (Art) thou he that troubleth Israel? And he answered, I have not troubled Israel; but thou, and thy father’s house, in that ye have forsaken the commandments of the LORD, and thou hast followed Baalim.”

Psa. 14:7 “Oh that the salvation of Israel (were come) out of Zion!
when the LORD bringeth back the captivity of his people, Jacob shall rejoice, 
(and) Israel shall be glad.”

Amos 7:9 “And the high places of Isaac shall be desolate, and the sanctuaries of Israel shall be laid waste; and I will rise against the house of Jeroboam with the sword.”

Amos 7:16 “Now therefore hear thou the word of the LORD: Thou sayest, Prophesy not against Israel, and drop not (thy word) against the house of Isaac.”

Gen. 9:27 “God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem;
and Canaan shall be his servant. ”

Mal. 1:2, 3 “ I have loved you, saith the LORD. Yet ye say, Wherein hast thou loved us? (Was) not Esau Jacob’s brother? saith the LORD: yet I loved Jacob, And I hated Esau, and laid his mountains and his heritage waste for the dragons of the wilderness.”

Rom. 9:13 “As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.”


           (4) THE NAME of a thing for THE THING ITSELF.

Eph. 1:21  Dignities.
“Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come:”

Phil. 2:9 “Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him,
and given him a name which is above every name:”

Matt. 12:35 “A good man out of the good “treasure”: i.e., treasury.
The words “of the heart” go out of the Text with the Textual Critics and the R.V.
Compare Textus Receptus with GNT Morph.

Received Text
12:35  ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ θησαυροῦ τῆς καρδίας ἐκβάλλει τά ἀγαθά καὶ ὁ πονηρὸς ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ θησαυροῦ ἐκβάλλει πονηρά

GNT Morph
12:35  ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ θησαυροῦ ἐκβάλλει ἀγαθά καὶ ὁ πονηρὸς ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ θησαυροῦ ἐκβάλλει πονηρά


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for netsach (Strong’s 5331).
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 11 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for mishma`ath (Strong’s 4928)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 13 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for chayil (Strong’s 2428)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 14 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for tephach (Strong’s 2947)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 15 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for koach (Strong’s 3581)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 15 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for cuwr (Strong’s 5493)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 25 Sep 2019.
amp;t=KJV&page=10 >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for shemen (Strong’s 8081)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 27 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV&page=6 >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for ma`owz (Strong’s 4581)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 27 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for rahab (Strong’s 7293)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 27 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for dallah (Strong’s 1803)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 28 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for chayil (Strong’s 2428)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 28 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV&page=9 >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for mataios (Strong’s 3152)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 28 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for ruwach (Strong’s 7307)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 28 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV&page=4 >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for pathach (Strong’s 6605)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 28 Sep 2019.
< http://


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for stadion (Strong’s 4712)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 28 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for libanōtos (Strong’s 3031)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 28 Sep 2019.
< http://


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for aiōn (Strong’s 165)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 29 Sep 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV&page=2 >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for `arah (Strong’s 6168)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 2 Oct 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for hēmera (Strong’s 2250)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 3 Oct 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV&page=12 >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for`ayin (Strong’s 5869)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 9 Oct 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV&page=5 >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for machmad (Strong’s 4261)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 12 Oct 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for zimrah (Strong’s 2173)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 13 Oct 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for mishlowach (Strong’s 4916)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 13 Oct 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for cathar (Strong’s 5641)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 18 Oct 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for nashaq (Strong’s 5401)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 18 Oct 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for aspazomai (Strong’s 782)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 19 Oct 2019.
< http://
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Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for `azaz (Strong’s 5810)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 21 Oct 2019.
< http://
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Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for tĕsuwmeth (Strong’s 8667)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 22 Oct 2019.
< http://
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Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for yad (Strong’s 3027)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 22 Oct 2019.
< http://
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Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for nasa’ (Strong’s 5375)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 22 Oct 2019.
< http://
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Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for male’ (Strong’s 4390)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 23 Oct 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >


(* יָד yad; hand)
Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for yad (Strong’s 3027)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 23 Oct 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for proseuchomai
(Strong’s 4336)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 25 Oct 2019.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

(see note in Thayer’s Lexicon under Acts viii. 15)

Thanks go to Blue Letter Bible and Internet Archive and The Cornell University Library for providing public domain material.

From “Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible” by E. W. Bullinger,
(Public Domain) pages 587 – 608. Adapted for website compatibility.
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