.                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 613

.

.                                                        SYNECDOCHÉ; or, TRANSFER.

.                                        The exchange of one idea for another associated idea.

Syn-ek’-do-kee. Greek, ςυνεκδοχή, from ςύν (sun), together with, and ἐκδοχή, a receiving from.
A figure by which one word receives something from another which is internally associated with it by the connection of two ideas: as when a part of a thing is put by a kind of Metonymy for the whole of it, or the whole for a part. The difference between Metonymy and Synecdoché lies in this; that in Metonymy, the exchange is made between two related nouns; while in Synecdoché, the exchange is made between two associated ideas.
[See A Greek-English Lexicon by Liddell, Henry George, 1811-1898; Scott, Robert, 1811-1887; pg. 1483]

.    Synecdoché of the GENUS is where the genus is put for a species.

.    Synecdoché of the SPECIES is where a species is put for the genus.

.    Synecdoché of the WHOLE is where the whole is put for a part: and

.    Synecdoché of the PART is where a part is put for the whole.

These four divisions may be further described and set forth as follows: —

.    I. Synecdoché of the GENUS.

.          i. All for the greater part.

.         ii. Universal affirmative does not affirm particularly,

      iii. Universal negative does not deny particularly.

      iv. Universals for particulars,

        v. Wider meanings for narrower.

II. Synecdoché of the SPECIES.

.          i. Many for all.

       ii. Narrower meaning for wider.

.        iii. Proper names for common.

       iv. A species put for whole genus,

.          v. Verbs: special for general.

       vi. One example or specimen for all kinds.
                                                                                  .                                                                          Page 614

.    III. Synecdoché: of the WHOLE.

.          i. All or every for the whole.

.         ii. Collective for the particular,

      iii. The whole for one of its parts,

.        iv. A place for a part of it.

.         v. Time for a part of it.

.     IV. Synecdoché of the PART.

.          i. An internal part of man (individually) for the whole man, etc.

.         ii. An integral part of men (collectively) for the whole.

.        iii. A part of a thing for the whole thing.

.        iv. A part of a time for the whole time.

 

.              I. Synecdoché of the GENUS:
.     Where the genus is put for the species;
.             or universals for particulars.

.                  i. ALL is put for the greater part.

Ex. 9:6 “And all the cattle of Egypt died”:
i.e., all kinds of cattle, not all the individual animals of all species. The Hebrew has no article.

The kinds of cattle are particularised in verse 3. This must be so, for no sane writer could stultify himself by meaning “all” in any other sense, when he goes on to speak of other beasts immediately after, in verse 10.

Ex. 9:25 “And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt.” etc.: i.e., all parts of it, or the greater part.

Ex. 32:3 “And all (i.e., the greater part of) the people break off the golden earrings which were in their ears”: i.e., that part of the people who wore them.

Verse 26: “And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him”: i.e., all who had not joined in the idolatry, for see Deut. 33:9. There were some Levites who were not spared.

Deut. 28:64 “And the Lord shall scatter thee among all peoples”: i.e., among all kinds of people, i.e., all nations.
                                                                                  .                                                                          Page 615
2 Sam. 16:22 “In the sight of all Israel”: lit., for all Israel’s eyes: i.e., for anybody to see that chose.

2 Sam. 17:24 “And Absalom . . . and all the men of Israel”: i.e., the greater part of Israel.

1 Chron. 14:17 “And the fame of David went out into all lands”: i.e., into lands in all parts of the world.

Psa. 22:7 (8) “All they that see me laugh me to scorn”: i.e., the great majority; for there were many that believed.

Psa. 118:10 “All nations compassed me about”: i.e., a great many.

Isa. 2:2 “And all nations shall flow unto it”: i.e., many from all nations.
See verse 3, and Micah 4:1.

Jer. 26:9 “And all the people were gathered against Jeremiah in the house of the Lord”:
i.e., a great many or most of the people. Not everyone, as is clear from verse 26, where
“the princes and all the people “spake” unto the priests and to the prophets.” So verse 18.

Hos. 7:4 “ They are all adulterers”: i.e., most of them, or as a whole.

Hag. 2:7 “I will shake all (i.e., people in all) nations, and the desire of all (i.e., many in all nations) shall come.”

Matt. 3:5 “ Then went out to him Jerusalem and all (i.e., people from all parts of) Judaea, and all the region round about Jordan.”

Matt. 8:34 “And, behold, the whole (i.e., nearly the whole) city came out to meet Jesus.”

Mark 2:33 “And all the city was gathered together at the door.” Here “all ” is put for the greater part.

Mark 9:23 “All things are possible to him that believeth”: i.e., all things comprehended in the promise. Not all things indiscriminately. Faith always has respect to what is said or promised.

John 1:16 “And of his fulness have all we received”: i.e., “all ” the “we” who have received grace. The “all ” is thus defined and limited.

John 10:8 “All that ever came before me are thieves and robbers”:
i.e., all who did not enter in by the door, but climbed up some other way. See verse 1.
                                                                                  .                                                                          Page 616
Other examples may be found in Matt. 10:22; 17:19,20; 18:18; 21:26; 24:9;
Luke 15:1; 1 Cor. 6:2; 9:19, 22; 13:7; Phil. 2:21; 4:13; Col. 1:28; Heb. 6:16.

 

.                 ii. Whenalland everyas universal affirmations,
                                  extend not to all the individuals,
.                     but to all kinds; or all that are specified or implied
.

Gen. 24:1o “All the goods of his master were in his hand”: i.e., all that his master had given him. Compare verse 53.

2 Kings 8:9 “So Hazael went to meet him, and took a present in his hand
(Metonymy for “with him”) and every good thing in Damascus”: i.e., of every kind of, or all manner of good things. Hazael did not strip Damascus.

Joel 2:28 (3:1) “And it shall come to pass afterward that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh”: i.e., upon all kinds of people out of all nations. Here the figure is in the word “flesh,” and the word “all ” is therefore to be taken literally. The “all flesh” is used in distinction* from “Israel ”: which before was the only People to enjoy the special gifts and calling of God.
*(see Notes at bottom on “All”)

Zeph. 2:14 “And flocks shall lie down in the midst of her, all the beasts of the nations”: i.e., all manner of beasts.

Matt. 4:23 “And healing every sickness”: i.e., as in A.V. and R.V., “all manner of disease.”

Luke 11:42 “Ye tithe mint, and rue, and every herb, and pass over judgment and the love of God”: i.e., herb of every (tithable) kind, or, as in A.V., “all manner of herbs.”

John 1:9 We must take this with the R.V. margin. “ This was the true light, which lighteth every man, coming into the world”: i.e., lighteth every man, now, without distinction, not without exception. Hitherto only Israel had the true light—the Shechinah or presence of Jehovah. Henceforth this distinction was to be done away: and every man (i.e., all to whom the Son should reveal the Father, Matt. 11:25, 26) would be thus enlightened. Every man who is enlightened,
is enlightened by Christ.

John 12:32 “I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all unto me”: i.e., all without distinction; clearly, not all without exception, as this would be contrary both to fact and experience. It must, therefore, be the figure Synecdoché: by which the genus is put for the species; and “all ” means people of all sorts and conditions and*nations and tongues, as distinguished from the one nation, Israel, which heretofore had been partaker of the Divine favour..                                                                                    .                                                                                                                                     . Page 617
Acts 10:12 “Wherein were all the quadrupeds of the earth”: i.e., every kind, both clean and unclean; as it goes on to describe the species, for which the genus is thus put: viz., “wild beasts
and creeping things and fowls of the air.” The A.V. correctly renders it “all manner of four-footed beasts,”
etc.

1 Tim. 2:4 “Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth.”

Here the “all ” is the same as in verse 1, and must mean all kinds of men, the genus being put for the species. In verse 2, some of them are named: and this is in contradictinction to the former dispensation; when salvation was confined to the Jews (John 4:22); but now it is extended to people out of all tongues, and nations, and peoples.

Heb. 2:9 “ That he by the grace of God should taste death for every man”: i.e., all manner of men, without distinction. It cannot mean without exception, or else every man must be saved, and if it
be taken as literally as that, then all women are excluded, for this word all is masculine.
See below under
Synecdoché of the Whole for part (Div. III. sec. iv.).

Heb. 13:4 “Marriage is honourable in all”: i e., all kinds of degrees which the law of God allows,
or all cases in which persons are entitled to marry. Otherwise it cannot be honourable.

2 Pet. 3:9 “Not willing that any should perish.” Here, the word “willing” is βύλομαι (boulomai),
to be willing or disposed, and not θέλω (thelō), as in 1 Tim. 2:4, which means to purpose, determine, or design. Hence, it means “is not disposed that any kind of person should perish,
but that all
without distinction should come to repentance.”

“Whosoever” is to be taken in the same way; as meaning some out of all:
the genus being put for the species: i.e., all of a properly and carefully defined class or species.
That is to say, “Whosoever” fulfills certain conditions:
i.e., “whosoever” believeth, “whosoever” willeth, etc. It means all of these without exception, all these as distinct from all the others who
do not come within the specially described characters, or correspond with the specified conditions.
It does not mean all of all kinds indiscriminately without exception, but all without distinction.*
(see Notes at bottom on “All”)
.                                                                                    .                                                     .               .                                                                                                                       .                         Page 618
The English word “whosoever” is not always the representative of the same Greek word.
It is most often used to translate the relative pronoun ὅς (hos), he who, and is sometimes
followed
by ἄν (an) , or ἐάν (ean), perchance.
When it is not this word, then it represents one of these following: —

πᾶς (pas), all, every (sometimes with ἄν (an) , or ἐάν, perchance).
See
Matt. 5:22, 28; Luke 6:47; 12:10, 48; 14:11, 33; 16:18 (twice); 20:18 (first);
John 3:15,16; 4:13; 8:34; 11:26; 12:46; 16:2; 19:12; Acts 10:43; Rom. 2:1; 9:33; 10:11;
1 John 2:23; 3:4, 6 (twice), 9, 10, 15; 5:1, 18; 2 John 9; Rev. 22:15.

πᾶς ὃς ἄν (pas hos an), everyone who perchance. Luke 12:8; Acts 2:21; Rom. 10:13

ὅστις (hostis), anyone who. Matt. 5:39, 41; 7:24; 10:32, 33; 12:50; 13:12 (twice);
18:4
; 23:12; Mark 8:34; Luke 14:27; Gal. 5:4, 10; Jas. 2:10.

ὅσοι ἅν (hosoi an), as many as perchance. Luke 9:6; Mark 6:11.

ὅσπερ (hosper), who indeed. Mark 15:6.

εἴ τις (ei tis), if any. Rev. 14:11; 20:15.

ἐάν or ἄν τις (ean or an tis), if perchance any. John 13:20; 20:23.

 

.                iii. A universal negative does not deny particularly.

Ex. 10:10 “The seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work”: i.e., work that is specifically forbidden: viz., “servile” or mechanical work.
(Lev. 23:7, 8; Num. 28:18)

1 Sam. 20:26 “Nevertheless Saul spake not anything that day”: i.e., concerning David or about his absence. He did speak, of course, but not specifically about the matter referred to.

Jer. 8:6 “No man repented him of his wickedness”: i.e., scarcely any.

Matt. 5:34 “Swear not at all”: i.e. not lightly or thoughtlessly: the particulars are given in verses 35 and 36.

Matt. 10:26 “For there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed”: i.e., no heavenly doctrine.

John 3:32 “And no man receiveth his testimony”: i.e., no natural man receiveth it of himself;
but only those to whom it is given of the Father. See Matt. 11:25, 26; 16:17.
.                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 619
John 15:5 “Without me ye can do nothing”: i.e., nothing that is good and true and right, or according to God; but a great deal that is contrary to Him.

John 18:20 “In secret have I said nothing”: i.e., nothing seditious or criminal. In secret He had said many things, but nothing which they particularly meant.

Acts 27:33 “This day is the fourteenth day that ye have tarried and continued fasting,
having taken nothing”: i.e., no proper meal, or having declined to take anything beyond proper necessaries.
It is μήδέν, not οὑδέν.
(See A Critical Lexicon And Concordance To The English And Greek New Testament by E. W. Bullinger pg. 525)

2 Thess. 3:11 “For we hear that there are some which walk among you disorderly, working not
at all, but are busybodies.” The negative does not deny working universally, but working of a particular kind: i.e., not working officially, yet working officiously. This is a beautiful example of Paregmenon (q.v.): “not ergazomenous, but periergazomenous”: i.e., as we might put it, not busy with their bodies, but busybodies.

1 Tim. 6:3, 4 “If any man teacheth otherwise … he is proud, knowing nothing”:
i.e., nothing about what he professes to teach, “the doctrine which is according to godliness”:
i.e , the Mystery, the truth which specially concerns the Church of God.
See 3:16: “the great” Mystery of godliness.

             iv. Words denoting universality do not always affirm it of particulars.

Mark 16:20 “They went forth, and preached everywhere”: i.e., everywhere where they went;
in every kind of place; or everywhere where they were able to go.

Luke 18:1 “And he spake a parable unto them to this end, that men ought always to pray, and not to faint”: i.e., on all occasions; or at every opportunity, and not to grow weary.

Luke 24:54 “And were continually in the temple”: i.e., at every opportunity, at the proper and stated times for assembling there.

Acts 28:22 “As concerning this sect, we know that it is everywhere spoken against”: i.e., everywhere where it is known and spoken about it is spoken against: as it is to this present day.

1 Cor. 4:17 “As I teach everywhere in every church”:
i.e., as I teach in every place where there is an assembly, or wherever I go.
                                                                                  .                                                                          Page 620

             V. Words of a wider meaning are used in a narrower sense.
.                      The universal for the particular, but of the same kind.

 

                   1. FLESH is put for man or mankind.

When the word “all ” is used in connection with “flesh” (i.e, “all flesh”), it is literal, and the word “flesh” is the figure (Synecdoché). The literality of the word “all” is thus emphasized.

Gen. 6:12 “All flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth”: i.e., all mankind.

Psa. 145:21 “And let all flesh bless his holy name”:
i.e., all men—all mankind (Heb.: “all flesh shall bless.” See verse 10).

Isa. 40:5 “ The glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh (i.e., all people) shall see it together.”

Isa. 66:23 “From one sabbath to another shall all flesh (i.e., all men) come to worship before me, saith the Lord.”

Luke 3:6 “And all flesh (i.e., all people) shall see the salvation of God.”

Rom. 3:20 “ Therefore by the deeds of the law, shall no flesh be justified in his sight.”

 

.                   2. CREATURE is put for man.

Mark 16:15  “Preach the gospel to every creature”:
i.e., to all people. A precept fulfilled in . . . Col. 1:23 “The Gospel . . . which was preached to every creature which is under heaven”: i.e., to every person without distinction.

1 Pet. 2:13 “Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man.” The Greek is “every human creation”
or creature: ἀνθρωπίνη κτίσις (anthrōpinee ktisis): i.e., institution.

 

                3. DOMICILE is put for prison.

Acts 12:7 “And a light shone in the building (οἴκημα, oikeema)”: i.e., the prison, a particular kind of building defined by the context. It is called a building, for it was no longer a prison after
the angel had entered it.

 

                4. HOUSE is put for temple.

Luke 11:51 “From the blood of Abel . . . which perished between the altar and the House”:
i.e., the temple building, as translated in A.V.

.                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 621

Acts 7:47 “But Solomon built him an house”: i.e., a Temple, a kind of house.

 

                5. MAN is put for husband.

Matt. 19:10 “If the case of the man (i.e., a husband) be so with his wife,” etc.

 

                6. The TONGUE is put for the man.

As man is fallen, it generally means an evil-speaker !

Psa. 101:5 “Whoso privily slandereth his neighbour.”
The Heb. is “the tongue (i.e., the slanderer), in the secret places of his friend, him shall I cut off.”

Psa. 140:11(12) “Let not a man of tongue (i.e., an evil-speaker) be established in the earth.”

Ecc. 10:11 “Surely the serpent will bite without enchantment, and a master of the tongue is no better”: i.e., an adept in evil-speaking (which is a particular kind of use of the tongue).
See A. V. margin.

 

                7. CHANGE is put for death.

Job 14:14 “All the days of my appointed time will I wait, till my change come”:
i.e., till I die: dying being one of many changes experienced by man.

Prov. 31:8 “Open thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all the sons of change.” Here, the A.V. renders it in the margin “sons of destruction,” and in the Text: “such as are appointed to destruction.”

 

.                  8. QUADRUPEDS (τετράποδα, tetrapoda) is used for tame or domestic animals.

Acts 10:12 “Wherein were all manner (Synecdoché of Genus) of four-footed beasts”: i.e., tame or domestic animals which are classed off, as distinct from “wild beasts” which are also “four-footed.”

 

.                  9. STATUTE is put for allowance, or necessary food.

Gen. 47:22 “For the priests had a statute of (or from) Pharaoh, and did eat their statute which Pharaoh gave them: wherefore they sold not their lands”: i.e., they ate, not the statute,
but the food assigned to them by one of the statutes which Pharaoh gave them.

Eze. 16:27 “Behold, therefore, I have stretched out my hand over thee and have diminished thy statute”: i.e., the food apportioned to thee. A.V. : “ordinary food.”

                                                                                  .                                                                          Page 622
Prov. 30:8 “Feed me with food of my statute”: i.e., my statutory food. See A.V. margin.

Job 23:12 “I have esteemed the words of his mouth more than my appointed portion”: i.e., my ordinary allowance. The R.V. has in the margin, literally, my own law. But the meaning is that the Lord’s word was valued by him more than his daily bread. The A.V. catches the spirit of the words and the meaning of the figure beautifully: “my necessary food.”

 

                10. The BOWELS are put for the heart.

Psa. 40:8 (9) “Thy law is in the midst of my bowels”: i.e., “in my heart,” as in A.V.
(but see the margin). Compare verse 10.

 

.                  11. The LIVING are put for men.

Gen. 3:20 “And Adam called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living”:
i.e., of all living beings, or of all people who should live hereafter.

Psa. 143:2 “In thy sight will no living (i.e., person) be justified.”
The A.V. inserts the word “man”: e.g., “no man living.”

 

.                  12. A COMMON NAME is sometimes put for a proper one.

A name common to many is used of one par excellence: as, when God is called “El,” “The Strong”
or “the Mighty One,” it is because, though others are strong, He is stronger than all. Gen. 14:22; 21:33; Psa. 5:4(5); 22:1 (2),
etc.

So Christ is called “the Lord.” Matt. 21:3; John 11:3, 12, etc.
The Teacher.” Matt. 22:24; John 11:28;
The Angel.” Gen. 48:16; Ex. 23:20, or
the Angel 0f the Lord.” Ex. 3:2; Judges 6:11. So Christ is “the seed of the woman.”
Gen. 3:15. All others are seed of some woman, but Christ is
the seed.

Moses is called “the Prophet.” Hos. 12:13 (14). Deut. 34:10, 11, 12.

The Euphrates is called “the river,” because of its magnitude. Gen. 31:21; Josh. 24:2,
where the A.V. has “flood.” Psa. 72:8; 80:11 (12); Micah 7:12.

So the Emperor Nero is called lord. Acts 25:26.

 

.                  13. The PLURAL NUMBER is put for the singular.

This is not Enallage; because this singular must be and is one of the same kind. As when Sarah said: “Sarah should have given*children suck?” Here, though the plural is used, it is used of her only son: as she goes on to say: “for I have born him a son in his old age.” Gen. 21:7.
.                                                                                    .                                                                          *Page 623
Gen. 46:7 “His daughters”: i.e., his one daughter “Dinah.”

See verses 15, 17. Verse 23: “The sons of Dan, Hushim”: i.e., his one son.

1 Chron. 1:41 “The sons of Anah; Dishon.”

1 Chron. 2:7 “The sons of Carmi; Achar.”

Verse 8: “The sons of Ethani; Azariah.”

Verse 31: “The sons of Appaim; Ishi. And the sons of Ishi; Sheshan. And the children of Sheshan; Ahlai.” This Ahlai was a daughter (see verse 34) !

1 Chron. 7:12 “Hushim, the sons of Aher.”

2 Chron. 24:25 “For the blood of the sons of Jehoiada the priest”: i.e., Zechariah his son.
See verses 20, 21.
In these passages there is a reading called Severin, and in some MSS., which has the singular number.

Mark 1:2; John 6:45;

Acts 7:42 The word “prophets” is put for the singular, because in only one prophet is the
prophecy “written” (Mal.3:1). But the case is different with Matt. 2:23. “That it might be
fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets. He shall be called a Nazarene.” A difficulty is created
by supposing that Nazarene is from netzer, a branch (a word used of Christ only in Isaiah).

But apart from the most improbable, if not impossible etymology, it does not say it was written.
It says it was spoken; and who will deny that many prophets may have spoken and prophesied of this Branch? Some prophecies were written and not spoken; some were spoken and not written; while others were both spoken and written.
The same explanation may be given of Matt. 27:9 and Acts 13:40, where the preposition “in” means “by.”

 

.              II. Synecdoché of the SPECIES.
This is when the Species is put for the Genus (the opposite of the above), or when particulars are put for universals.

.                   i. MANY is sometimes put for all.

Isa. 53:12 “And he bare the sin of many.” Yes, “many,” but for all His own people according to verse 6, Heb. 9:28, and Matt. 1:21.
.                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 624

Dan. 12:2 “And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake”:
i.e., all to whom the prophecy refers. See John 5:28. But “every man in his own order”;
or rank and time and according to the Dispensation.

Rom. 8:29 “ That he might be the first-born among many brethren”:
i.e., many relatively to others; but not with respect to his own brethren.

John 6:50 “This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that anyone may eat thereof,
and not die”: i.e., everyone who does eat of it.
.

 

.                  ii. Words of a limited and special sense are used
                        with a wider and more
universal meaning.

.                        1. MAN is used for both sexes, men and women.

See Psa. 1:1; 32:1; 112:1; Jer. 17:5, 7, and so frequently as not to need further citation, or to be given in full.

.                        2. ONE RELATIONSHIP is put for, and includes others.

Psa. 22:4 (5) “Our fathers trusted in thee”: i.e., all who had lived before them and trusted in God are included.

Psa. 106:6 “We have sinned with our fathers”: i.e., with all who have gone before.

2 Sam. 9:7 “And David said unto him. Fear not, for I will surely show thee kindness for Jonathan thy father’s sake, and will restore thee all the land of Saul thy father”: i.e., thy grandfather.

2 Sam. 19:28 Mephibosheth said to David, “All of my father’s house were but dead men before
my lord the king”: he means his father’s father.

Dan. 5:2, 11 In verse 18 Daniel, speaking to Belshazzar, calls Nebuchadnezzar (by Synecdoché)
his father, whereas he was his grandfather. See the margin of verse 2, 11. Daniel made no mistake, but he makes use of a common and well known figure of speech.

1 Kings 15:10, 13 Asa’s grandmother is called his “mother.”
See margin of verse 10.

Judges 9:1 “Brethren” is put for other relations. So also Gen. 13:8; 31:23; 1 Chron. 12:29, where it is rendered “kindred.” See margin…
.                                                                                                                                                             Page 625

Jerome classifies four kinds of “brethren”:—“brethren” by

.      1. Nature. Gen. 27:1,

.      2. Nation. Deut. 15:3.

.      3. Kindred. Gen. 13:8.

.      4. Affection. Psa. 133:1, etc., etc.

Ex. 1:7 “Sons” are put for posterity. So also Jer. 31:29.

Gen. 24:48 Rebecca called Abraham’s “brother’s daughter,” when she was the daughter of
Bethuel and granddaughter of Nahor, not of Abraham.

Gen. 29:5 Laban the “son” of Nahor is put for his grandson.

2 Sam. 19:24 Mephibosheth is called “the son of Saul.” “Son” is here put (by Synecdoché)
for his grandson.

Josh. 7:24 Achan is called “the son of Zerah,” which is put for great grandson. See verse 1.
So….

Matt. 1:1 Christ is called “the Son of David” in a like way. The word “son” being used in a
wide signification. So Matt. 9:27; 12:23; 15:22; 20:30, 31; 21:9, 15; 22:42; Mark 12:35; Luke 18:38, 39. Compare Rom. 1:3; 2 Tim. 2:8; Rev. 22:16.

Hence David is called his father (Luke 1:32).

Zacchæus is in the same way called a “son of Abraham” (Luke 19:9). Compare Luke 13:16.

All the Jews called Abraham their “father” (Luke 1:73; John 8:39, see verse 56. Acts 7:2;
Rom. 4:1). The Samaritans called Jacob their “father” (John 4:12).


.                  iii. A proper name is put for a common; an individual is put for many;
.                         and the particular is put for the universal.

Isa. 63:16 “ Thou art our father, though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Israel acknowledge us not.”

Here, the individuals are put for the great majority of the People of Israel.
For the patriarchs named were long since dead.

1 Cor. 3:6 “Apollos” is put for any minister.

1 Cor. 7:16 “Wife” and “man” are put for all wives and all husbands.

 

.                  iv. A species of a thing is put for the whole genus.

.                        1. Bow, Spear, etc., are put for all kinds of arms.

Psa. 44:6 (7) “I will not trust in my bow, neither shall my sword save me”: i.e., I will not trust in any weapons or in any human means*of defence, but in God alone, see verse 7 (8).
.                                                                                    .                                                                         *Page 626
This may be also Metonymy of the adjunct. So Zech. 10:4.

Psa. 46:9 (10) “He maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth: he breaketh the bow, and cutteth the spear in sunder; he burneth the charitot in the fire”: i.e., if all wars are to cease,
all kinds of implements of war must be included and represented in the few species named.

 

.                        2. The Ass is put for all kinds of animals not sacrificed.

Ex. 13:13 “And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb.”
The firstborn of all unclean beasts, which might not be sacrificed, had to be redeemed
(see Num. 18:15), but only one species is named here, and in 34:20.

 

.                        3. GOLD is put for gifts.

Psa. 72:15 “To him shall be given of the gold of Sheba.” Here, the principal gift is put for all other kinds of gifts. See Isa. 60:5-7.

 

.                        4. STONES are put for whatever is hurtful to the soil.

Job 5:23 “For thou shalt be in league with the stones of the field:
and the beasts of the field shall be at peace with thee.”

 

.                        5. LION is put for all kinds of wild beasts.

Isa. 15:9 “I will bring more upon Dimon, lions upon him that escapeth of Moab.”


.                        6. COMMANDMENT is put for all commandments and doctrines.

2 Pet. 2:21 “It had been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than,
after they had known it, to turn from the holy commandment delivered unto them.” So chap. 3:2.

 

.                        7. HONEY is put for whatever is sweet and delicious.

Ex. 3:8, 17 “A land flowing with milk and honey”: i.e.. filled with all satisfying and delightful things, sweet and good: i.e., a region irrigated and fruitful, abounding with pasture and fruits of all kinds.
See Ex. 13:5; 33:3; Lev. 20:24; Num. 13:27; 14:8; 16:1; Deut. 6:3; 11:9; 26:9, 15; 27:3; 31:20; Josh. 5:6; Jer. 11:5; 32:22; Eze. 20:6, 15.

Sometimes “oil”is added, or “figs,” etc. Deut. 8:8; 32:13; 2 Kings 18:32; Eze. 16:13, 19.

Sometimes “butter.” Job. 20:17.

.                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 627

.                        8. BREAD is put for all kinds of food, including fish.

It is often translated “food.”
Gen. 3:19; 18:5; 39:6; 43:25, 31; 49:20; Lev. 3:11 (food); 21:6, 8 Num. 28:2; Judg. 13:16; 1 Sam. 14:24 (food); 20:27 (meat); 28:20; Job. 6:7 (meat); 20:14 (meat); Psa. 41:9 (10); 102:4(5); 136:25; 146:7;

Ecc. 9:11; 10:19 (feast); Isa. 3:1; 58:7; Jer. 52:33; Dan. 5:1 (feast); Hos. 9:4; Mal. 1:7;
Matt. 6:11; 15:2, 26; Luke 14:1, etc., etc.
“Bread of thy God”: i.e., food which God gives.

Hence to “break bread” or to “eat bread” means to partake of a meal. It is the common Hebrew idiom to this day. Just as among the Arabs, “salt” (one particular and important kind of food) is
put universally for the whole meal and for all kinds of food, and “to take salt” with anyone means
to partake of his hospitality. So “to break bread” means not to partake of the Lord’s supper, but to partake of an ordinary meal with others. By Synecdoché “bread” (one kind of food) is put for all kinds of food (or meat), and the breaking of it is merely equivalent to carving or cutting it up.
See under Idiom.

When “water” is added (i.e., “bread and water”), it is meant to include all kinds of solid and liquid food necessary to eat and to drink.

See Isa. 3:1; 33:16, etc.

 

.                        9. Peace is used for plenty, and happiness;
.                             and of all kinds of earthy good and blessing.

Gen. 43:23 “Peace be to you”: i.e., peace and all blessings.

Num. 6:26 “ The Lord . . . give thee peace.”

Psa. 119:165 “Great peace (i.e., every blessing) have they which love thy law.”

Rom. 2:10 “But glory, honour, and peace (i.e., every earthly blessing) to every man that worketh good,”etc. See this passage under the figure of Ellipsis. So also Jas. 3:18.

 

.     PEACE is also used of all heavenly and spiritual blessing.

Isa. 57:19 “I create the fruit of the lips; peace, peace, to him that is far off,” etc. See under .

John 14:27 “Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you”: i.e., not peace alone,
which is only one species of heavenly gifts, but all kinds of blessings. So John 20:19, 21, 26.

Rom. 1:7 “Grace to you, and peace.”
.                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 628

Rom. 5:1 “Therefore having been justified by faith (ἐκ πίστεως, ek  pisteōs, on faith principle,
as opposed to law principle) we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ”; and with it every heavenly blessing, as verse 2 goes on to show: “By whom we have obtained access also by faith into this grace wherein we stand.” So also Rom. 14:17, etc., etc.

 

.                        10. PREY (טרף, that which is taken in hunting: i.e.. one kind of food) .                                                                                     is put for any and all kinds of food.

Psa. 111:5 “He hath given prey (so margin: i.e., meat) unto them that fear him”:
i.e., those who fear God will not have to hunt in vain for their food! He will give it to them.
See Psa. 147:9.

Prov. 31:15 “She riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth prey to her household”:
i.e., finds and prepares their food.

Mal. 3:10 “Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse, that there may be prey in mine house.”

 

.                        11. BLOOD (Heb. often BLOODS) is put for murder or cruelty; or death generally.

Deut. 19:12 “The avenger of blood”: i.e., murder.

Psa. 9:12 (13) “When He maketh inquisition for blood”: i.e. for the shedding of blood.

So Hos. 1:4; 4:2; Matt. 23:35; 27:24.

 

.                        12. BLOOD is also put for guilt.

Lev. 20:9 “His blood shall be upon him”: i.e., his guilt or punishment, etc., etc.

Deut. 19:10 “And so blood (i.e., guilt) be not upon him.”

Deut. 21:8 “And the blood (i.e., the guilt) shall be forgiven them.” So in the next verse the A.V. actually supplies the words: “So shalt thou put away the guilt of innocent blood from among you.”

2 Kings 24:4 “He filled Jerusalem with innocent blood.”
“Blood” (i.e., murder and the guilt of it) is here put as the gravest sin, for all the other kinds of sins which Jehoiakim committed in Jerusalem.

Psa. 51:14 (16) “Deliver me from bloods. O God”: i.e., (as in A.V.), “from blood-guiltiness.”

Isa. 1:15 “Your hands are full of blood”: i.e., of murders and blood-guiltiness.

.                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 629
.                        13. CLOTHING is put for all necessary things.

Isa. 3:6 “When a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father, saying,
Thou hast clothing, be thou our ruler”:
i.e., thou art well dressed and therefore hast other good things beside.

 

.                        14. WIDOWS and FATHERLESS are put for all kinds of afflicted.

Ex. 22:22 “Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child.”
Surely it does not follow that they might afflict all others. No!
One kind or class is put for all similar kinds of helpless people.

Deut. 10:18 “He doth execute the judgment of the fatherless and widow.”

Deut. 27:19 “Cursed be he that perverteth the judgment of the stranger, fatherless, and widow.”
So also Psa. 146:9; Prov. 23:10; Isa. 1:17, 23; Jer. 7:6; 22:3; Eze. 22:7;

Jas. 1:27 “Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this,
To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction,” etc.: i.e., all in distress or trouble of any kind. This refers to “religion” which in itself is nothing. All who are “in Christ” will surely manifest such evidence as this and much more. But for those
not “in Christ,” all the visiting of all the widows
and fatherless in the world will never accomplish the stupendous miracle of Divine grace;
for we are saved by grace and not by works.

.                  V. Verbs having a special meaning are used in a more general sense.


.                        1. “To ASCEND” is used for to come, or to enter into the thoughts, or the mind.

1 Kings 12:4 “All the money that ascendeth upon the heart of a man”:
i.e., as in A.V., “that cometh into any man’s heart” (i.e., thoughts, his thoughts or mind).

Jer. 7:31 “To burn their sons and daughters in the fire; which I commanded them not,
neither did it ascend upon my heart”: i.e., come into my mind.

Eze. 38:10 “At the same time shall things ascend upon thine heart”:
i.e., as in A.V., come into thy mind.

1 Cor. 2:9 “Neither have ascended upon the heart of man”: i.e., as in A.V., “Neither have entered into the heart of man.” Here the idiom is Hebrew, though the language is Greek.
.                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 630

.                        2. To MAKE (with time) is used for to continue or abide.

Acts 15:33 “And, having made a time, they were let go”:
i.e., as in A.V., “After they had tarried there a space.”

Acts 18:23 “And having made or done some time, he departed”:
i.e., as in A.V., “ After he had spent some time there.”

Acts 20:3 “And having done three months there”: i.e., as in A.V., “And there abode three months.”

2 Cor. 11:25 “A night and a day have I done or made in the deep”:
i.e., I have passed or been in the deep.

Jas. 4:13 “Go to now, ye that say, To-day or to-morrow we shall go into such a city,
and shall do a year there”: i.e., as in A.V., continue there a year.
So Latin, agere vitam (to live), and agere poenitentiam (to repent) which Rome,
translating literally in all her versions, renders “do penance.”

 

.                        3. To GO OUT and COME IN is used of official actions or of life in general.

Num. 27:16, 17 “ . . . set a man over the congregation, Which may go out before them,
and which may go in before them, and which may lead them out, and which may bring them in;
that the congregation of the Lord be not as sheep which have no shepherd.”
So verse 21; 2 Chron. 1:10; Psa. 121:8; Isa. 37:28; John 10:9; Acts 1:21

 

.                        4. To FIND is used for to receive, to obtain.

Gen. 6:8 “Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord”: i.e., received grace from the Lord.

Gen. 26:12 “Then Isaac sowed in that land, and found
(i.e., received, as A.V., see margin) in the same year an hundredfold: and the Lord blessed him.”

Luke 1:30 “Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with (i.e., received grace from) God.”

Rom. 4:1 “What shall we say then that Abraham our father, as pertaining to the flesh, hath found?” i.e., received or obtained.

Heb. 9:12 “By his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having found
(i.e., obtained, as in A.V.) eternal redemption for us.”

.                                                                                                                                                             Page 631

.                        5. To FIND is also used of to have, or to be present with.

1 Sam. 13:15 “And Saul numbered the people that were found (i.e., were present) with him,
about six hundred men.”

Luke 9:36 “And when the voice was past Jesus was found (i.e., was present) alone.”

Rom. 7:18 “For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh) there does not dwell any good thing:
for to will is present with me, but how to perform that which is good I find not
(i.e., is not present with me).”

Phil. 2:8 “And being found (i.e., present) in fashion as a man he humbled himself.”

Phil. 3:9 “And be found (i.e., be present) in him.”

Heb. 11:5 “By faith Enoch was translated that he should not see death; and was not found
(i.e., present), because God had translated him.”

 

.                        6. To CALL UPON THE LORD is used of Divine worship.

.          .                        A special act is put for the general act of worship.

Gen. 4:26 “Then began men to call upon (i.e., to worship) the name of the Lord”: i.e., Jehovah.
See under Metonymy.

Isa. 43:22 “But thou hast not called upon me (i.e., worshipped me), O Jacob.” So the Greek προσκυνέω (proskuneō), to do homage by kissing the hand, the general word for reverence is
put for the special act of worship.

John 4:23, 24 “The hour is coming and now is, when the true worshippers will worship
the Father in spirit and in truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship him. God is a spirit;
and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth.”
See also under Hendiadys below.

 

.                        7. To PASS THE NIGHT is used for abiding.

Psa. 49:12 “Man being in honour, abideth not: he is like the beasts that perish.”

Isa. 1:21Righteousness lodged in it; but now murderers.”


.                        8. To PLACE is put for to make.

Rom. 4:17 “I have placed thee (i.e., made thee) a father of many nations.”

Heb. 1:2 “Whom he hath placed (i.e., appointed) heir of all things.”

 .                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 632

.                        9. To MEET (καταντάω, katantaō) is used of arriving at so as to touch.

Acts 16:1 “Then came he to (i.e., and he arrived at) Derbe and Lystra,”etc.

Eph. 4:13 “Till we shall all have come into (i.e., arrived at) the unity of the faith,” etc.

Phil. 3:11 “If by any means I might attain unto (i.e., arrive at) the out-rising,
that one from among the dead.”
* Paul is saying this from his point of view as a Jew,
and not that of a saint. He is speaking of what he formerly counted as his gains (verse 7), and
which he now “counted loss for the knowledge of Christ . . . that I may be found in him . . . that I may know him … if by any means I might arrive at the out-rising from among the dead.”

* καταντήσω εἰς τὴν ἐξανάστασιν τὴν ἐκ νεκρ
ν LTTr.WM. and R.V. read τὴν ἐκ for τν, as rendered above.

This was not spoken as a Christian, as though he might attain something that other Christians could not attain; but it was spoken as a Jew, that he might attain (in Christ) a resurrection from among the dead, which other Jews could not hope for. The Jews looked for a resurrection, but it was only τν νεκρν (tōn nekrōn), of dead persons, while Paul was willing to give up this and
all his other supposed “gains” for the blessed hope of an out-rising, ἐκ τν νεκρων (ek tōn nekrōn), from among the dead.

1 Thess. 4:17 “Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught away together with them in clouds for a meeting of the Lord, into the air, and thus, always with the Lord shall we be.”

Here, the meeting involves actual arrival at the meeting-place of the Lord, and actual presence
there with him.

 

.                        10. To DRINK is used of partaking of food and drink of all kinds.

1 Cor. 3:2 “I gave you milk to drink and not meat”: i.e., as in A.V., I have fed you.
See under Zeugma.

 

.                        11. To ANSWER, or OPEN THE MOUTH is put for speaking.

Job 3:1 “After this Job opened his mouth, and cursed his day”: i.e., Job said, etc.

Psa. 119:172 “My tongue shall respond to thy word”: i.e., speak of it, as in A.V. And so, very frequently, this Hebrew idiom is used in the New Testament.

.                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 633

Matt. 11:25 “At that time Jesus answered (i.e., spake), and said: I thank Thee Father, . . . Even so, Father, for so it seemed good in thy sight.” Thus our attention is called to what He said; for the answer was to the circumstances of “that time.” What were they? John had questioned (verses 2-6). The people had spurned both John and Himself (16-19). His mighty works had been fruitless
(20-24). And, then, “at that time,” when all seemed to end in failure, the Lord
Jesus found rest in submission and resignation to the Father’s will, and, then, turning to all His servants—“weary and heavy laden” with their burden and toil—He graciously invites them to find rest where He had found it, saying: “Come unto me . . . and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; . . and ye shall find rest.”

Mark 11:14 “And Jesus answered and said unto it” (the fig-tree, which had not spoken),
i.e
., spake and said. So Luke 7:40, etc.


.                        12. To SIT is used of a permanent condition in which one is placed.

Isa. 42:7 “Them that sit in darkness,” quoted in Matt. 4:16.

Acts 18:11 “And he sat there a year and six months teaching the word of God among them”:
i.e., he continued there, but the verb “sat” is used in order to be in harmony with his act of teaching.
See under Metonymy.

 

.                        13. To SIT DOWN And RISE UP is used for all the ordinary acts of life .                                        .                which come between them.

Psa. 139:2 “Thou knowest my downsitting and mine uprising.”

 

.                        14. To COME, בּוֹא (bō), ἔρχεσθαι (erchesthai), is used of going as well as coming.

Jonah 1:3 “But Jonah . . . found a ship coming [i.e., going) to Tarshish.”

Mark 16:2 “They came (i.e., went) unto the sepulchre.”

John 6:17 “And (they) entered into a ship, and came (i.e., went) over the sea toward Capernaum. And it was now dark, and Jesus was not come (i.e., gone) to them.”

John 11:29 “As soon as she heard that, she arose quickly, and came (i.e., went) unto him.”

Acts 28:17 “And so we came (i.e., went, as in A.V.) towards Rome.”

 .                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 634

Rev. 6:1, 3, 5, 7 In these verses, the verb “and see” goes out, according to the R.V. and all the Critical Texts. In this case the verb “come” is used in the sense of “go,” as a command from the throne to the horsemen, e.g., “I heard as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four living creatures, saying. Go! and I saw and behold a white horse. . . and he went forth.”
So in each of the other cases.

 

.                  vi. One example or specimen is put for all kinds of similar things.

.                        1 . In human actions.

Deut. 19:5 One kind of homicide is mentioned as an example of every kind.

Psa. 112:5 “Lending” is put as one kind of favour which a good man sheweth.
The most rare is given as an example of all kinds of merciful works.

Pro. 20:10 “Divers ephahs” are put for all kinds of measures.


Pro. 27:14 “Blessing” a friend with a loud voice, is put for all kinds of flattery.

Jer. 15:10 “Lending on usury” is put for all kinds of business transactions and contracts which
are liable to gender strife.

Zech. 5:3 “Stealing” and “swearing”—two of the commonest kinds of sin—are put for other kinds.

Matt. 5:22 “Raca” is put for all kinds of opprobrious terms, etc.

Matt. 6:1 “Take heed that ye do not your righteousness.”

The figure here led to an early corruption of the text. One kind of righteous acts, alms-giving,
is put for all kinds. Hence ἐλεημοσύνην (eleēmosuneen), alms, was put for δικαιοσύνην (dikaiosuneen), righteousness.

Matt. 6:5 Prayer is only one of many things which are not to be done as the hypocrites do them.

Matt. 6:16 So with fasting.

Mark 11:23 Removing mountains—one kind of impossible thing, is put for all kinds that are “impossible with men,”
So Luke 17:6; Matt. 17:20, in which latter place the word “nothing” shows that removing mountains is only one of a class of impossibilities. It is not in the nature of things for a word to pluck up a mountain. See 1 Cor. 13:2.

 .                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 635

Job 9:5 “Which removeth mountains, and they know not.” This is only one kind of things which are possible with God, though impossible with men (Luke 18:27).

Heb. 13:9 “It is a good thing that the heart to be established with grace, not with meats, which have not profited them that have been occupied therein.”Here “meats,” one of the things about which people are occupied, is put for all kinds of divers and strange doctrines which do not profit those who are occupied with them.

 

.                        2. In Divine Precepts, etc.

Ex. 20:12 “Honour thy father and thy mother”: i.e., all who stand in the place of parents.

Ex. 23:4 The “ox and ass” are mentioned only as examples, for surely a horse, or camel, or child, etc., would be included in the command.

Prov. 25:21; Rom. 12:20. Surely the two things mentioned are only examples of many ways in which love may be shown to our enemies.

Luke 3:11 One kind of vestment is put for any kind.

1 Tim. 6:8 “Food and raiment” are put by example for this world’s goods.
See 1 John 3:17.

John 13:14 “Washing the feet” is only one kind or one example of humble service which one may do for another. So 1 Sam. 25:41; 1 Tim. 5:10.

 

.                  III. Synecdoché of the WHOLE.

Synecdoché of the whole is when the whole is put for a part. This is a closer connection than
that of mere genus or species. It is when the one is not merely of the same kind as the other,
but actually a part or member of it.

 

.                        i. The WHOLE is put for every part of it.

Num. 16:3 “Ye take too much upon you, seeing all the congregation are holy, every one of them, and the Lord is among them”: i.e., the whole congregation having been separated to the Lord from the other nations, each person was also included.

1 Kings 6:22 “The whole house he overlaid with gold”: and therefore every part of it.

 .                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 636
Matt. 3:5 “Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all (πσα, pasa) Judæa, and all the region round about Jordan:” the words Jerusalem, Judæa, and region, being used by Synecdoché of the genus
for the people in them. The word “all” is literal, and means the whole as including every part.
So that “all Judaea” means people from every part of Judæa. So Mark 1:5; Acts 1:8.

Matt. 27:45 “There was darkness over all the land (ἐπὶ πσαν τὴν γν, epi pasan teen geen)”:
i.e., the whole Land, as in Mark 15:33 (ὅλην, holeen).

Eph. 2:21 “In whom all the building, fitly framed together, groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord”: i.e., the whole building; πσα (pasa), every being put for every part of it.

Eph. 3:15 “Of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named.” Here, the R.V. has rendered the figure literally “every family,” which is not sense, but in the margin has put “Gr.(fatherhood.” “Every” here is used for “the whole,” and means every part or member of the whole: i.e., the whole family as made up of every principality, and power, and angel, and archangel “in heaven” (verse 10), and of Israel and the Church on earth. All are of or from one Creator and Source (Heb. 2:11).
See Ellipsis.

Col. 2:9 “For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily”: lit., every: i.e., every part of; meaning the whole fulness of the Godhead in bodily form.

2 Tim. 3:16 “All Scripture is given by inspiration of God”: i.e., the whole Scripture; not “every Scripture,” as in the R.V.. but every part of Scripture.
See under Ellipsis, page 44.

Acts 4:10 “Be it known to you all, and to all the people of Israel”: i.e., the whole of Israel.

Rom. 4:16 “To the end the promise might be sure to all the seed”: i.e., the whole seed.
2 Thess. 1:10 “When He shall have come (ἕλθῃ, elthee) to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe . . . in that day”: i.e., the whole body of believers.

In like manner “every” (i.e., “all”) is used for tlie whole in Matt. 26:59;
Mark 1:33; 14:55; Acts 2:47; 7:10; 15:22; Phil. 1:13; 2:7


.                        ii. The Collective is put for the Particular.

What is said of the whole, collectively, is sometimes said (by Synecdoché) only of a part;
and not of all the parts, precisely and singularly.
 .                                                                                                                                                             Page 637

Gen. 6:12 “All flesh.” This did not include Noah. See verse 9.

Gen. 35:26 “These are the sons of Jacob, which were born to him in Padan-Aram.”
This does not include Benjamin. See verses 24 and 16.

Matt. 19:28 “Ye which have followed me . . . when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” The “ye” does not include Judas Iscariot.

Heb. 11:13 “These all died in faith.” This does not include Enoch (see verse 5), but only all who died.

1 Cor. 15:22 “For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.” But all will not die (see verse 51). Those who are “alive and remain” to the coming of the Lord will not die at all, but be changed. Therefore it means that, as, in Adam, all who are in him die, so in Christ also, all who are in Him shall be made alive. The “all” in the first clause clearly does not include the all who
shall be “alive and remain,” and cannot therefore include the “all”in the second clause.

 

.                        iii. The Whole is put for one of its Parts.

Gen. 8:13 “And Noah removed the covering of the ark,” i.e., not the whole roof, but the covering of the aperture which was made in it as a part of it : see 6:16.

Ex. 22:13 “If it be torn in pieces, then let him bring it (i.e., one of the pieces) for witness.”

1 Sam. 5:4 “And when they arose early on the morrow morning, behold, Dagon was fallen upon
his face to the ground before the ark of the Lord; and the head of Dagon, and both the palms of his hands were cut off upon the threshold: only Dagon was left to him”, i.e., only the body was left.
So the A.V. puts in italics “only the stump of Dagon was left.”

Psa. 102:5 (6) “My bones cleave to my flesh,” i.e., “my skin,” as in A. V., see margin.

1 Sam. 19:24 “Naked” for scantily clad. So also Isa. 20:2; Micah 1:8; John 21:7; Job 22:6, 24:10; Matt. 25:36, 43; Jas. 2:15; 1 Cor. 4:11.
In all these cases “naked” is put for being scantily clothed, or poorly clad.

Acts 27:33 “And continued fasting.” Fasting, the whole, is put for the part; i.e., from real nourishment, or regular meals.

 .                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 638

.                        iv. A place is put for a part of it.

.                             1. The World is put for persons in all parts of it.

John 3:16 “God so loved the world”: i.e. people and kindred and tongues in all parts of the world. Not, as heretofore, only Israel. This love was confined to Israel, according to Deut. 33:3: “Yea, he loved the people”: i.e., Israel (chap. 7: (6-8, etc.). But now His love was to go out beyond Israel to people of all nations of the world, without any such distinction. It is not the world without exception, but without distinction.

John 11:19 “Behold, the world is gone after him”: i.e., multitudes of people of all sorts.
Synecdoché here is preferable to Hyperbole
(q.v.).

Rom. 1:8 “Your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world”: i.e., in all parts of the world.

1 John 2:2 “Not for ours only, but also for the whole world”: i.e., for all people, without distinction. See Metonymy of the Subject.

 

.                              2. “The World ” is put for a primary part of it.

Isa. 13:11 “And I will punish the world for their evil”; i.e., Babylon (see verse 1). So 14:17.

Luke 2:1 “There went out a decree from Cæcsar Augustus, that all the world
(i.e.. the civilized world, or Roman Empire) should be taxed.”

 

.                             3. “ ALL The EARTH ” is put for the greater part of its inhabititants.

Gen. 41:57 “In all lands”: i.e., in many neighbouring countries.

2 Sam. 15:23 “All the country”: i.e. all the country round him.

Isa. 13:5 “The whole land”: i.e., all the land of Chaldæa.

 

.                             4. The EARTH is put for the land of JUDÆA.

Hos. 1:2 Rendered “land.” So 4:1 , Joel 1:2, etc.

 

.                             5. The LAND (γ) is put for city.

Matt. 2:6 “And thou, Bethlehem, land (i.e., city) of Juda.”
Not seeing the figure, the A.V’. interpolates the word “in” in italics.

 .                                                                                                                                                             Page 639

.                             6. The EAST is put for Persia, Media, and other countries east of.                                    Jerusalem.

Eze. 25:4; 1 Kings 4:30; Isa. 2:6; Matt. 2:1, etc.

 

.                             7. The South is put for Egypt, with respect to Palestine.

Jer. 13:19; Dan. 11:5, etc.

 

.                             8. The South is put for the Negev, or the hill country of JUDÆA,

with respect to Jerusalem.

Gen. 12:9; 13:1, 3; Eze. 20:46, 47.

 

.                             9. The North is put for Chaldæa and its chief city Babylon, because all armies from beyond the Euphrates crossed high up and entered Palestine from the North.

Jer. 1:13-15; 13:20; 47:2; Zeph. 2:13.

 

.                             10. The North is put for Media and Persia, with respect to Babylon.

Jer. 6:1 (compare 51:11 and 27, 28); 1:3, 41.

 

.                             11. The Temple is put for certain of the parts comprehended in it.

Luke 2:46; John 18:20.

 

.                        V. Time is put for a portion of time.

לֽפלָם (l’ohlam), for ever, used in various limited significations.

Ex. 21:6 “And he shall serve him for ever”: i.e., as long as he lives.
So Deut. 15:17, and Philem. 15.

Lev. 25:46 “They shall be your bondmen for ever”: i.e., as long as they live.

1 Sam. 1:22 “That he (Samuel) may appear before the Lord, and there abide for ever” :
i.e., as long as he lives.

1 Chron. 15:2 “For them (the Levites) hath the Lord chosen to carry the ark of God, and to minister unto him for ever”: i.e., without change.

2 Sam. 12:10 “Now therefore the sword shall never (lit., not for ever) depart from thine house” : i.e., while David or his family lived.

Jer. 5:15 The Babylonians are called “a nation from eternity”:
i.e., very ancient (compare Gen. 10:10).

.                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 640

Jer. 17:4 “Ye have kindled a fire in mine anger, which shall burn for ever”:
i.e. until all is consumed.

Jer. 25:9 “Eternal desolations.” Here it is rendered “perpetual” to soften it down, as the period is distinctly defined in verse 1 1 to be “seventy years.” After which Babylon is to become eternal desolation (verse 12). until it shall be rebuilt according to many prophecies. Verses 9 and 12 clearly mean, therefore, that the desolations shall be complete and continuous during the whole period referred to.

Dan. 2:4; 6:21 (22), etc.—“O King live for ever”: i.e., a long time: as we say,
“Long live the king.” So in Luke 20:9, “a long (a sufficient) time” (χρόνος, chronos):
i.e., a year; till the next season.

 

.                        iv. SYNECDOCHÉ OF THE PART.

Synecdoché of the Part is when a part is put for the whole.
The connection between the part and the whole is closer also than that between the species and
the genus; inasmuch as the part is actually a member of the whole, and not merely a species or specimen of it.


In Synecdoché of the Part, one part or member is put for, and includes, every part or member.

.                        i. An integral part of man (individually) is put for the whole man.

.                             1. The SOUL (כפשׁ, nephesh, and ψυχή, psychee) is put for the whole person.

Gen. 12:5 “The souls (i.e., the persons) that they had gotten in Haran.”

Gen. 14:21 “And the king of Sodom said unto Abram, Give me the souls (i.e., the persons) and
take the goods to thyself.”

Gen. 17:14 “That soul (i.e., that person) shall be cut off from his people.”

So Gen. 46:15, 26, 27; Ex. 12:19; 16:16 (marg.) Lev. 5:2, 4; Josh. 20:3; Eze. 18:4, 20;
Acts 2:41, 43; 7:14; Rom. 13:1; 1 Pet. 3:20
; Luke 6:9, “to save a soul “: i.e. a man.

In this sense we must take Rev. 6:9 and 20:4: “the souls of them that were slain or beheaded”:
i.e
., the persons. John saw the dead persons. They could not reign till they were made alive,
hence in 20:4, we read that “they lived”. Moreover, how could “souls” cry “How long ?” or, as such, wear “white robes.” which “were given unto every one of them” (6:11)?

.                                                                                                                                                             Page 641

.                             2. The expression My Soul, His Soul, etc., becomes by Synecdoché                                  the idiom for me, myself, himself, etc. See under Idiom.

 

Num. 23:1o “Let my soul die the death of the righteous”:
i.e., let me die, as in A.V. See the margin.

Judges 16:30 “And Samson said. Let my soul (i.e., me, as in A.V., see margin) die with the Philistines.”

Job 36:14 “Their soul dieth (i.e., they die, as in A.V.) in youth.”

Psa. 3:2 (3) “Many there be which say of my soul (i.e., of me), There is no help for him in his God.” So Psa. 11:1.

Psa. 16:10 “Thou wilt not leave my soul (i.e., me) in Hades”: i.e., the grave.

Psa. 25:13 “His soul (i.e., he) shall dwell at ease.”

Psa. 35:13 “I humbled my soul (i.e., myself) with fasting.”

Psa. 103:1 “Bless the Lord, O my soul”: i.e., O myself. So in verses 2, 22, and Psa. 104:1, 35.

Isa. 57:5 “Is it such a fast that I have chosen? a day for a man to afflict his soul?” i.e., himself.

Luke 12:19 “I will say to my soul”: i.e., myself, etc.

Acts 2:31 “His soul (i.e., He) was not left in Hades (the grave), neither his flesh did see corruption.”

Rom. 16:4 “Who have for my soul (A.V., life) laid down their own necks”:
i.e., who have laid down their own necks for me.

1 Pet. 1:9 “Receiving the end of you faith, even the salvation of your souls”: i.e., of yourselves.

 

.                             3. SOUL (כפשׁ, nephesh, and ψυχή, psychee) is also used of animals;

and when joined with the word “ living” (khayah), means “living creature,” as translated in
Gen. 1:20, 21, 24, 30. So also Rev. 16:3, as well as of man in Gen. 2:7, where it is rendered “living soul.”

 

.                             4. The BODY is put for The PERSON himself.
(Just as we say, “a hand” for a workman.)


Ex. 21:3 “If he (i.e., the Hebrew servant) came in with his body (i.e., by himself, as in A.V.)”:
i.e., alone, without a wife, as the rest of the verse explains it.

Rom. 12:1 “I beseech you therefore . . . that ye present your bodies (i.e., yourselves) a living sacrifice,” etc.

 .                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 642

1 Cor. 6:15 “Know ye not that your bodies (i.e., ye) are the members of Christ?”

Jas. 3:6 “So is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body”:
i.e., the whole being.

.                        5. The FLESH, an integral part of man, is put for the WHOLE.

Gen. 17:13 “My covenant shall be in your flesh”: i.e., in your body, on your person.

Psa. 16:9 “My flesh also shall rest in hope”: i.e., my body will rest in hope. See Acts 2:26-31.

Prov. 14:30 “A sound heart is the life of the flesh”: i.e., of the body.

2 Cor. 7:1 “Let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh (i.e., of the body) and spirit.”


.                             6. The FLESH is put for the WHOLE PERSON.

Gen. 6:12 “All flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.” Here “flesh,” being the figure for people, the word “all” is literal: i.e., all people, every person. But even this excepts Noah.
See above.

Psa. 56:4 (5) “ I will not fear what flesh (i.e., man) can do unto me.” See verse 11 (12).

Psa. 65:2 (3) “O Thou that hearest prayer, unto Thee shall all flesh come”: i.e., all people.

Psa. 145:21 “Let all flesh (i.e., let all people) bless his holy name for ever”: lit., “all flesh shall bless,” as in verse 10.

Isa. 40:5 “The glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh (i.e., all people) shall see it together.” See Luke 3:6.

Isa. 40:6 “All flesh is grass.” See Metaphor.

Matt. 19:5 “And they twain shall be one flesh”: i.e., one person, not a soulless body!

John 6:51 “My flesh”: i.e., myself.

Rom. 3:20 “By the deeds of the law there shall no flesh (i.e., not a single person) be justified.” Here, the “flesh” being figurative, the negative denies literally.
So 1 Cor. 1:29 “That no flesh (i.e., not a single person) should glory in his presence.”

1 Pet. 1:24 “All flesh (i.e., every one) is as grass.”

.                                                                                                                                                             Page 643

.     7. FLESH is put for the whole, and true, humanity of Christ.

John 1:14 “The Word was made flesh”: i.e., man, a human being.

John 6:51-56 Here, “flesh” and “blood,” (see below) are jointly as well as severally put for humanity as distinct from Divinity. There are other figures in this passage; but the word “flesh”
is put, not for the “body” of Christ, but for Himself in His true humanity.

1 Tim. 3:16 “Manifest in the flesh”: i.e., in human beings. The “mystery” was manifest.
The reading (ho), which, corresponds best with the context, and agrees with the neuter word Μυστήριον, mystery. This mystery is Christ Mystical (not personal):
i.e., Christ the head of the Body in glory and His members here upon earth.
Otherwise the last three facts at the end of the verse are quite out of order.
They describe the order as to Christ Mystical, but not as to Christ personal.*
* See The Mystery, by the same author and publisher.

1 Pet. 3:18 “Being put to death as to the flesh (i.e., as to his human nature), but quickened
(i.e., raised from the dead) as to his spirit (i.e., his resurrection or spiritual body).” There is
no article with either word: only the dative case, describing what happened as to the body.
This is the usage of the words “flesh” and “spirit” in 1 Cor.15. See also chap. 4:1.
See The Spirits in Prison, by the same author and publisher.

Heb. 10:20 “By a new and living way, which he hath consecrated (marg., new made) for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh”: i.e., his human nature, Himself as truly and really man.

1 John 4:2 “Every spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh (i.e., in His real human nature) is of God.” Note the three forms of the verb ἔρ χομαι. Here, it is the perfect participle, ἐληλυθότα (eleeluthota), “being come.” In chap. 5:6, it is the aorist participle, ἐλθὼν
(ho elthōn), “this is He that came.” While in 2 John 7, it
is the present participle, ἐρχόμενον (erchomenon), “who confess not that Jesus Christ is coming in the flesh”:
i.e., in his human nature, the same Jesus, in like manner as he went into heaven (Acts 1:11).

 

.     8. FLESH is put for ALL LIVING BEINGS.

Gen. 6:13 “The end of all flesh is come before me”: i.e., the end of every living creature.
Here, the “all” is literal, because “flesh” is figurative.

 .                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 644

Gen. 6:17 “I . . . bring a flood of waters upon the earth to destroy all flesh”:
i.e., every living thing.

Psa. 136:25 “Who giveth food to all flesh”: i.e., to every living thing.

 

.     9. The FLESH is put for the animal lusts, and the evil desires of the Old nature:
.              and for THE OLD NATURE itself.

In Rom. 1:16-8:39, there are many examples.

See Rom. 8:4 “Who walk not after the flesh”:
i.e., the Old nature. This is not the same as in verse 3.

Rom. 8:13 “If ye live after the flesh, ye shall die”:
i.e., if ye live and are ruled by the principles of the Old nature. So in verse 12, and frequently.
See articles on Romans in Things to Come, 1898 and 1899.


Gal. 5:6 “Walk in the spirit (i.e., in the New nature), and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh
(i.e., of the old man).”

 

   10. BLOOD is put for man, as we say “poor blood” for “poor fellow.”

Psa. 94:21 “They gather themselves together against the soul of the righteous
(i.e., against the righteous man), and condemn the innocent blood”: i.e., the innocent man.

Prov. 1:11 “Let us lay wait for blood”: i.e., for some man whom we may kill.


Matt. 27:4 “I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood”: i.e., the innocent man.

Acts 17:26 God “hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth”: i.e., out of one man God hath made many different nations. Man is the same all over the world; and, though there are different nations and races all over the world, they are all descended from one man.

 

.     11. FLESH and BLOOD is put for the human nature as distinct from the Divine Nature:
.                    or for the body of man as animal, mortal, and corruptible.

Matt. 16:17 “Blessed art thou Simon Bar-jona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto
thee, but my Father which is in heaven.” Here, the Lord uses Peter’s human name  “Simon ”
and his human parentage, and “flesh and blood” in order to contrast and emphasize the
distinction between these and the Divine origin of the communication and revelation. The figure
of Synecdoché here*
puts the emphasis on man and humanity: “No human being revealed this
unto thee.”

.                                                                                                                                                            *Page 645

1 Cor. 15:50 “Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God”: i.e., no mortal human being
can enter there. Man must be “born again,” and “born of the Spirit,” and raised from the dead, or  “changed ” before he can find entrance into that kingdom. See the rest of the verse, and compare verses 42-49.

Gal. 1:16 “I conferred not with flesh and blood”: i.e., with no human being in contrast with God, Who alone revealed to him the Gospel which he was to preach.

Eph. 6:12 “We wrestle not against flesh and blood”: i.e., against human beings, in contrast with wicked spiritual beings.
See under Metonymy of Adjunct.

Heb. 2:14 “Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same”: i.e., He became flesh, and took part in a true and perfect human body.

 

.     12. The HEAD is put for the man himself.

We use the figure when we reckon anything at so much “per head.”

Judges 5:30 “To the head of a man, a damsel, two damsels”: i.e., one or two damsels per head, or for each man. Here, there is a double Synecdoché, “a womb” being put for “a damsel.” See below.

2 Kings 2:3 “Knowest thou that the Lord will take away thy master from thy head
(i.e., from thee) today ?”

Psa. 3:3 (4) “The lifter up of mine head”: i.e., of me: “my head” meaning the same as “my soul.”

Psa. 7:16 (17) “His mischief shall return upon his own head” : i.e., upon his own self.

Psa. 66:12 “Thou hast caused men to ride over our heads” : i.e., over us.

Prov. 10:6 “Blessings are upon the head of the just”: i.e., upon the man himself.

Isa. 35:10 “With songs, and everlasting joy upon their heads”: i.e., upon them, themselves.
So “blood” is said to be upon the head of anyone, i.e., where
“blood” is put for the guilt of blood-shedding (Metonymy of the effect) and “head ” is put (by Synecdoché) for the person himself.

 .                                                                                                                                                             Page 646

2 Sam. 1:16 “And David said unto him, Thy blood be upon thy head”: i.e., thyself.

So 1 King’s 12:37; Eze. 33:4; Acts 18:6.

Matt. 27:25 “His blood (i.e., the guilt of his blood shedding, by Metonymy of the effect) be on us, and on our children.”


.     13. The SKULL, as a part of the man, is put for the man himself.

Ex. 16:16 “An omer a skull” : i.e., an omer per head, or, as in A.V., an omer “for every man.”
See A.V. margin. And many other places.

 

.     14. The FACE is put for the whole man, especially marking and emphasizing his presence.
See under Pleonasm.

Gen. 3:19 “In the sweat of thy face shall thou eat bread.” When the face perspires, the person himself perspires: but, as it is only the face that is seen, it is that which is mentioned, and is thus put for the whole man, “Bread,” we have seen, is put by Synecdoché for food in general.

Gen. 19:21 “See, I have accepted thy face (i.e., thee) concerning this thing also.” See A.V. margin.

Gen. 32:20 (21) “And afterward I will see his face”: i.e., himself. There are three instances here.

2 Sam. 17:11 Hushai says to Absalom, “I counsel . . . that thy face (i.e., thou thyself) go to battle.”

There can be but little doubt, as Dr. Ginsburg points out in his Introduction to the Hebrew Bible (page 169), that the word בַּקְרָֽב (baccrav) rendered to the battle, is an abbreviation in the MSS. for קרבָּם (bcheerbam), which means in the midst 0f them. And so the Septuagint and the Vulgate translate it. Besides, קרׇב (ch’rab) is never used in Samuel for battle. It is always מלחׇמׇה (milehamah). So that the passage should read: “I counsel . . . that thou go in the midst of them in thine own person.”

1 Kings 2:20 “And the king said unto her, Ask, my mother; for I shall not turn back thy face”:
i.e., as in A.V.,  “I will not say thee nay,” with the emphasis on  “thee.”

1 Kings 10:24 “And all the earth sought the face of Solomon”: i.e., his presence, so as to see him and to speak with him personally.

.                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 647

Job 11:19 “Many shall intreat thy face”: i.e., as in A.V., “will make suit unto thee.”
See A.V. margin.

Psa. 42:5(6) “I shall yet praise Him for the salvations (Heterosis (q.v.) of number: i.e., the great salvation) of His countenance ”: i.e., which He (i.e.. His presence) shall give me. So verse 11 (12):
“I shall yet praise Him who is the salvations (i.e., the great salvation) of my countenance
(i.e., me myself), and my
God.” So Psa. 43:5.

Psa. 132:10 “For thy servant David’s sake turn not away the face of thine anointed.”

Here the figure emphasizes the last words, meaning not his face merely, but David himself.

Prov. 28:21 “To have respect of faces is not good” : i.e., as in A.V. , “persons,” so as to be
influenced by personal appearance rather than by justice and right.

Ecc. 8:1 “A man’s wisdom maketh his face to shine (i.e., the man himself), and his hardness is changed.” See under Metonymy.

Isa. 3:15 “What mean ye that ye . . . grind the faces of the poor ? ”
So 36:9, “Turn away the face of one captain.”

Lam. 5:12 “Princes are hanged up by their hand: the faces (i.e., persons) of elders were not honoured.”

 

   15. The EYE is put for the man himself, in respect to his vision, mental or physical.

Matt. 13:16 “Blessed are your eyes (i.e., ye), for they (i.e., ye) see.” So Luke 10:23.

1 Cor. 2:9 “Eye hath not seen”: i.e., no one hath seen. And many other passages.

 


.     16. The EYE LIFTED UP is put for a proud man, and his high looks.

Psa. 18:27 (28) “Thou wilt save the afflicted people: but wilt bring down high looks
(Heb., soaring eyes)” : i.e., proud people. So Prov. 6:17 (margin).

 

.     17. The MOUTH is put for the whole man, in respect of his speaking.

Prov. 8:13“The froward mouth (i.e., person) do I hate.”

 

.     18. The BELLY is put for man, in respect of his eating.

Rom. 16:18 ” For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly”:
i.e., their own selves.
.                                                                                                                                                             Page 648

Phil. 3:19“Whose God is their belly”: i.e., themselves, and what they can get.

Tit. 1:12 ” Slow bellies “: i.e., slow persons, who by reason of large eating, have grown stout and move slowly.

 

.     19. The Woman is put for a female, in respeet to her being marriageable.

Judges 5:30  “A womb—two wombs for each man.”
The A.V. renders the figure here by the word ” damsel.”

 

.     20. The HEART is put for the whole man, in respect to his knowledge or affection.

Gen. 31:20 “And Jacob stole away the heart of Laban” : i.e., Jacob baffled Laban’s knowledge by hiding his intentions. So in verse 26, where the A.V. renders it “ unawares,” but see the margin on verse 26; and in verse 27, “secretly.”

2 Sam. 15:6 “So Absalom stole the hearts of the men of Israel”: i.e., gained them through getting their affection.

Luke 21:34 “Take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts (i.e., ye) be overcharged with surfeiting,” etc.

 

.     21. The FEET are put for the whole man, in respect to carefulness, quickness, etc.

Prov. 1:16 “Their feet (i.e., they) run to evil.”

Prov. 6:18 “Feet (i.e., persons) that be swift in running to mischief.” So Isa. 59:7.

Isa. 52:7 “How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings”:
i.e., how beautiful or pleasant is the coming of him who brings good news. So Rom. 10:15.

Rom. 3:15 “Their feet (i.e., they) are swift to shed blood.”

 

.   ii. An integral part of men (collectively) is put for the whole, or others associated with them.

Ex. 12:40  One person is mentioned; but with him are comprehended his father Isaac, and his grandfather Abraham. “Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.” Note that it does not say that Israel’s descendants dwelt in Egypt 430 years, as the commentators assume, but that their “sojourning” lasted that time; reckoning from Abraham (who is included by Synecdoché, as is Isaac also).

.                                                                                                                                                             Page 649

Four hundred and thirty years was the whole duration of the sojourning; as is stated also in
Gal. 3:16, 17. While the 400 years’ sojourning is dated from Abraham’s “seed” (Isaac), who was born thirty years later. See Gen. 15:18 and Acts 7:6. There are two reckonings, starting from two different points, and both ending at the Exodus.

Ex. 17:8, 13 Amalek (in verse 8) is put for him and his whole army.
So Josh. 10: 28, 40; 1 Sam. 18:7, etc.

Deut. 33:7 Only “Judah ” is named in the blessing, but in company with him Simeon is understood. For their inheritance and blessing was one. Josh. 19:1 and Judges 1:3
“And this for Judah,” etc.

1 Kings 8:66 “David ” is named, but Solomon, his son, is understood together with him;
see 2 Chron. 7:10, where it is expressly added; and 1 Kings 10:9.

1 Kings 10:11 “The navy of Hiram” is named, but Solomon is included; see 9:26, 27.

1 Kings 11:32 “One tribe” is mentioned; but, by Synecdoché, Simeon and Benjamin are included, as well as the Levites and others who joined the tribe. See 2 Chron. 15:9; 1 Kings 12:23; 2 Chron. 11:13. All these are included, by Synecdoché, in 1 Kings 12:20.

2 Kings 17:18 The Levites and Benjamites, etc., are included.

Job 32:4 Job is named, but the others are included.

Isa. 7:2, 5, 8, 9, and 9:9 “Ephraim ” is named, because in that tribe was Samaria, the royal city;
and because out of that tribe was Jeroboam, the first king of Israel. But by Synecdoché all the ten tribes are included.

Psa. 80:1 (2) “ Joseph ” (whose son Ephraim was) is put for all Israel.

Psa. 80:2 “Ephraim”* includes the ten tribes, while “Benjamin ” includes Judah; and “Manasseh ” includes the two-and-a-half tribes.
* One of the ancient readings called Severin has this: “For the sons of Ephraim,” etc.

 

Amos 5:15 and 6:6 “Joseph ” is put for the ten tribes or the kingdom of Israel.

Jer. 6:1 “Benjamin ” is put for all Judah, on account of their close connection with the Gibeathites (see Judges 19:16; Hos. 9:9; 10:9).

.                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 650

.   iii. A PART of a thing is put for the whole of the thing.

.     1. A FIELD (ָד֢ה sadch) is put for a country or region.

Gen. 14:7 “ And they smote the whole field (i.e., country) of the Amalakites.”

1 Sam. 27:7 “David dwelt in the field (i.e., country) of the Philistines.”


.     2. CORNER is put for tower, which was usually placed at the corner.

Zeph. 1:16 “A day of trump and alarm against the fenced cities, and against the high corners”:
i.e., towers (with A.V.). The word is so translated in margin of chap. 3:6.

 

   3. The Baptism of John is put for his ministry.


. . . Not everywhere, but in a few passages.

Acts 1:22 “Beginning from the baptism (i.e., the ministry) of John, unto that same day that he (Christ) was taken up from us.” So Acts 10:37.

 

.     4. STONES is put for the restored buildings.

Psa. 102:14 (15) “Thy servants take pleasure in her stones.”

 

.     5. WALL is put for the whole city encompassed by it.

Amos 11:7 “I will send a fire on the wall of Gaza (i.e., I will burn the city of Gaza with fire, as the rest of the verse declares), which shall devour the palaces thereof.” So 1:10, 14; compare verse 12; and 2:2, 5, etc.


.     6. In like manner GATE is put for the whole city.

Gen. 22:17 “Thy seed shall possess the gate (i.e., the cities) of his enemies.”

The phrase “within thy gates” means within thy cities. See Ex. 20:10; Deut.12:12; 15:27; 16:5.

Psa. 87:2 “The Lord loveth the gates (i.e., the city) of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob.”

Jer. 15:7 “And I will fan them with a fan in the gates (i.e., cities) of the land.”

 .                                                                                    .                                                                          Page 651

.     7. Gate is also put for the inhabitants of the city,
.          or for the people . . . who assemble at its gates.

This may also be considered as Metonymy of the Subject.

Ruth 3:11 “All the gate (i.e., the people assembling there) of my People doth know that thou art a virtuous woman.”

Ruth 4:10 “That the name of the dead be not cut off . . . from the gate of his place”: i.e., from his own city and People. The two are combined in Isa. 14:31, “Howl, O gate; cry, O city.” In neither case could the gate or the city cry or howl. Two classes of people are addressed: first “gate”
(a part of the whole) is put, by Synecdoché, for those who assemble there; and then “city ” is put, by Metonymy of the Subject, for all the inhabitants of the city.

 

.     8. The Death of Christ is put for the atonement and its results
..          (and see under Metalepsis).

Rom. 5:10 “We were reconciled to God by the death of his Son”: i.e., not by the act or article of death only, but by the atonement of which it formed only a part.

So 1 Cor. 11:26; Col. 1:22;

Heb. 2:14 “That through death he might destroy him that had the power of death.” Here, the first time the word “death” is used, it is put for the atonement associated with it; and the second time
it means literally the article of death. See under Antanaclasis.

 

.     9. THE KNOB OF THE ROLL is put for the MS. or book itself.

Heb. 10:7 “In the volume of the book it is written of me.”
Here ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου (en kephalidi bibliou), in the head of the book (κεφαλίς, kephalis, head),
is not a synonym for roll, as some try to show; but it is the head or knob of the cylinder on which the manuscript was rolled, and which is put, by Synecdoché, for the roll and volume itself.
It thus corresponds with the Hebrew in…..
Psa. 40:7 (8):
ִבִּמְגִלַּת סֵפֶר (Bimegillath sepher), in the scroll of the book, and is not a paraphrase, but gives the correct sense. In Heb. 10:7 this book may be taken as referring to Psa. 40:7 (8);
but what about Psa. 40:7 (8), where the same phrase occurs? What is the book referred to there?
Surely it must be the book of the eternal covenant referred to in Psa. 139:16.
                                                                                  .                                                                          Page 652

iv. A PART OF TIME is put for the whole time.

.     1. A YEAR is put for time, definite and indefinite.

Isa. 61:2 “ To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord”: i.e., the time of Christ’s coming.

Isa. 63:4 “ The year of my redeemed is come.”

Jer. 11:23 “ I will bring evil upon the men of Anathoth, even the year of their visitation.”

 

.     2. IN THE DAY is put for an indefinite time.

Gen. 2:4 “When they were created, ” In the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens.” Here ” in the day ” in the second line answers to ” when ” in the first line.

Gen. 2:17 “In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.” ִי ום (b’yom), in the day.
A noun with the preposition followed by the verb in the infinitive, as here, becomes an adverb of time, and means simply when, or after then, or after that.

Lev. 13:14 “In the day that raw flesh appear”: in A.V., ” when,” and in R.V,, ” whensoever.”

Lev. 14:57 “To teach in the day of the unclean, and in the day of the clean.” Both A.V. and R.V. renders this: “To teach when it is unclean and when it is clean ” (see A.V. margin).

Deut. 21:16 ” In the day that (i.e., when) he maketh his sons to inherit that which he hath.”

2 Sam. 21:12 ” In the day that (i.e. when) the Philistines had slain Saul in Gilboa.”

1 Kings 2:37 “It shall be that, on the day thou goest out, and passest over the brook Kidron,
thou shalt know for certain that thou shalt surely die.”

Then, after Shimei had gone out, and been to Gath to seek his servants, who had run away,
and had come back again, “it was told Solomon that Shimei had gone from Jerusalem to Gath,
and was come again ” (verse 41). The king sent for Shimei; and said: “Did I not make thee to swear by the Lord, and protested unto thee, saying.

                                                                                                                                                           Page 653

Know for a certain, on the day thou goest out, and walkest abroad any whither, that thou shalt surely die?”

After all this, Solomon proceeded to make Shimei “know for certain that he should surely die.”


In this case Shimei had been not merely outside his house, but far away to Gath, one of the royal cities of the Philistines; and had not only consumed some time on his journeys out and home, but, after he got there, he had to seek his lost servants out and find them. Therefore “on the day ” could neither be intended nor taken in its literal meaning; but, by Synecdoché, for any indefinite yet certain time. It was so taken by Solomon here: and it is perfectly certain that it is to be so understood in Gen. 3, for in verse 19 the Lord distinctly says: “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.”


Not “ in the day ” that Adam ate of the forbidden fruit; for the Lord contemplates him as living on, and he did live for nine hundred and thirty years (Gen. 5:5). The interest of the passage in
1 Kings 2 is that the words are used in exactly the same connection, and with the corresponding figure, Polyptoton (q.v.), ” dying thou wilt die,” מוֹת תָּמוּת (mōth tamuth).

Those who see and understand the figure Synecdoché, here employed, need not trouble themselves to invent some new and strange and unscriptural theories as to death; or resort to strained interpretations in order to explain a self-created difficulty.

2 Kings 10:1 “In those days (i.e., the days of Sennacherib’s invasion) Hezekiah was sick unto death, and the prophet Isaiah came unto him.”

Psa. 18:18 (19) “They prevented me in the day of my calamity “: i.e., when I was in trouble.

Isa. 11:16 “Like as it was to Israel in the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt “:
i.e
., not the actual day (for it was dark), but at the time or on the occasion when he came up, etc.

Jer. 11:3, 4 “Cursed be the man that obeyeth not the words of this covenant, which I commanded your fathers in the day that I brought them forth out of the land of Egypt.”

And in verse 7: “I earnestly protested unto your fathers in the day that I brought them up out of
the land of Egypt.”


Now the commands and protest referred to are written in Deut. 27, and were given some forty years after the Exodus. It is clear* from this that יוֹם (biyōm) is not to be taken literally, and that “in the day ” is put by Synecdoché for the whole time covered by the events referred to.
See Jer. 31:32; 34:13; Eze. 20:5, 6.
.                                                                                                                                                            *Page 654

Eze. 36:33 “ Then saith Adonai Jehovah: In the day that I shall have cleansed you from all your iniquities, I shall also cause you to dwell in the cities, and the wastes will be builded.”

It is clear that all this building will not be done in a day, but it will all be done when the time
comes for the Lord’s word to be fulfilled.

Eze. 38:18 “And it shall come to pass in the day of Gog’s coming against the land of Israel,” etc.


Here, the A.V. renders ”
בַּיֹּום (b’yom) at the same time; and the R.V., in that day.


.     And more generally DAYS are used for time.

Psa. 102:11 (12) “My days are like a shadow that declineth” : i.e., my life.

Psa. 103:15 “As for man, his days are as grass”: i.e., he himself, or his life.

Isa. 4:1 “And in that day (i.e, at that time) seven women shall take hold of one man,” etc.

Isa. 9:4 (3) “Thou hast broken the yoke of his burden . . . as in the day of Midian” :
i.e., at the time when Midian was broken.

Hos. 9:9 “As in the days of Gibeah “: i.e., at the time when the sons of Belial sinned at Gibeah (Judges 19:22-25).

Matt. 2:1 ” In the days (i.e., in the reign) of Herod the king.”

Acts 5:36 ” For before these days”: i.e., before this time.

.      The plural DAYS is put for a full year.

Gen. 24:55 ” Let the damsel abide with us days at the least ten; after that she shall go.”
This is, according to the A.V. margin. ” a full year or at least ten months.”

Gen. 40:4 “And they continued days (i.e., a year) in ward.”


Ex. 3:10 “Thou wilt therefore keep this ordinance at its appointed season: from days to days”:
i.e., from year to year.

Lev. 25:29 “If a man sell a dwelling house in a walled city, then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold; within days (i.e., a full year) may he redeem it.” Or as in R.V., “for a full year shall he have the right of redemption.” 

                                                                                  .                                                                          Page 655

Judges 11:40 “The daughters of Israel went from days to days (i.e., “yearly,” as in A.V.) to talk with the daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite four days in the year.” The verb ָנָה (tahnah) occurs only twice: here and in chap. 5:11. It means to rehearse, to talk with or of.

Judges 17:10 “I shall give thee ten shekels of silver for the days” : i.e., by the year, as in A.V.

1 Sam. 1:3 “And this man (Elkanah) went up out of his city from days to days
(i.e., from year to year, A.V. margin and R.V.; or, yearly, A.V.) to worship and to sacrifice.”
In verse 7, the Hebrew word ” year ” is used literally.

1 Sam. 27:7 “And the time that David dwelt in the country of the Philistines was days and four months “: i.e , a full year and four months.

1 Kings 17:7 “And it came to pass at the end of days that the brook dried up, because there had been no rain in the land.” The A.V. and R.V., “after a while ” is not far out. It may mean a full year; but it evidently must include a whole season during which rain might have been expected.
In chap. 18:1, “many days ” include the whole three years.

Amos 4:4  “ Bring . . . your tithes after three of days” : i.e., in the third year
(according to the Law, Deut. 14:28).


.     3. The SABBATH is sometimes put for the full week.

Matt. 28:1  “In the end of the sabbaths” : i.e., at the close of the week.

Luke 18:12  “I fast twice in the sabbath” : i.e., in the week.

1 Cor. 16:1  “On the first of the sabbath” : i.e., on the first day of the week.


.     4. THE MORNING is put for a more lengthened period or continuous time.

Job 7:17, 18 “What is man . . . that thou shouldest visit him every morning ?” i.e., continually.

Psa. 73:14  “All the day long have I been plagued and chastened every morning” :
i.e., continually.

Psa. 101:8  “At morn I will destroy the wicked of the land.” Not  “early,” as in A.V.; nor, “morning by morning,” as in R.V., as though in millennial days each morning would commence with, and each day begin with, executions ! It means more than that. It means continually;* so that all through the millennium all workers of iniquity will be continually cut off.

.                                                                                    .                                                                         *Page 656

Ecc. 11:6 “in the morning sow thy seed”: i.e., early and continuously.

Isa. 33:2 “Be thou their arm every morning ” : i.e., continually.

Lam. 3:23 The Lord’s mercies and compassions are  “new every morning” : i.e., always and continually new.


.     5. EVENING and MORNING are put for the full day; or,
.          the whole of
a day and night.

Gen. 1:5, 8, 13, 19, 23, 31.


.     6. HOUR is put for a special time or season.

John 4:23 “The hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth.” See this passage and verse 24, under Hendiadys.

John 5:25  “The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God; and they that hear shall live.” Note that in this almighty act Christ’s title is  “Son of God” ; while, in verse 27, He executes judgment in the earth because He is the  “Son of man.”
So John 5:28; 16:2 (A.V., “time” ); 17:1;
1 Thess. 2:17 (A. V.,  “time” ); Philem. 15 (A.V.,  “season”). 1 John 2:18,
twice (A.V.,  “time” ).

 

.     7. In CHRONOLOGY a part of a time or period is sometimes put for the whole of
.           such period
.

1 Kings 2:11  “Seven years” is put for seven years and a half.
Compare 2 Sam. 2:11.

2 Kings 24:8  “Three months” is put for three months and ten days.
Compare 2 Chron. 36:9.

 

Notes and References:

“…all without distinction.See Notes

Years ago in my learning adventures I was taught about the word “all ”, and how it could mean either “all without exception” or “all without distinction”. If every individual or item was included, it was without exception. But, if it only applied to every individual or item within a certain group it was said to be all without distinction. Many of us later came to realize that what we were trying to say should have been “all WITH distinction”, meaning only those within a certain class or group. However, there is also a correct use for the term “all WITHOUT distinction”.

1 John 2:2 “He is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the whole world”: i.e., for all the inhabitants of the world without distinction; as shown by the use of the word for “ours” (which is ἡμέτερος (heemeteros) and not ἡμν (heemōn), of us : i.e., “our,” as in the previous clause).”

And, from the chapter on the figure Ellipsis is…

“1 John 2:2 —“He is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for [the sins of] the whole world.”
The words here are correctly repeated from the preceding clause. The contrast is between “ours” and “the world.”
A very emphatic word is here used for “ours,” not the genitive case of the ordinary pronoun ἡμῶν (heemōn) “our,” which is used in the first clause, but a special possessive pronoun, which is very emphatic, ἡμετέρος (heemeteros), our own. It is used of that which is peculiarly ours as distinct from that which belongs to others…..so that “our sins” refers to the writer and his People as Jews, as distinct from the rest of the world. Before this, propitiation was only for the sins of Israel; but now, and henceforth, Christ’s propitiation was for all without distinction, “out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation”: not for all without exception, for then all must be saved, which is not the case.”

And now, therefore, as we have seen through study of the figure Synecdoché when the word “all” occurs in scripture we must consider if it is…..

1. all with distinction, or,
2. all without distinction, or,
3. all without exception, or
4. Synecdoche: all, meaning the greater part.

So, when someone says “all means all”, ask them, WHICH ONE?

https://www.facebook.com/groups/233912120064339/search/?query=all%20without&epa=SEARCH_BOX

https://archive.org/stream/cu31924029277047#page/n135/mode/2up/search/1+John+2%3A2

https://archive.org/stream/cu31924029277047#page/n631/mode/2up/search/1+John+2%3A2

https://archive.org/stream/cu31924029277047#page/n693/mode/2up/search/1+John+2%3A2

https://archive.org/stream/cu31924029277047#page/n965/mode/2up/search/1+John+2%3A2


Ex. 9:6
https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/particle_definite_article.html

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for hos (Strong’s 3739)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 22 Dec 2019.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G3739&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for an (Strong’s 302)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 23 Dec 2019.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G302&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for ean (Strong’s 1437)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 23 Dec 2019.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=G1437&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for pas (Strong’s 3956)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2019. 23 Dec 2019.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G3956&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for periergazomai
(Strong’s 4020)”. Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 28 Jan 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G4020&
amp;t=KJV >

see also…

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for peri (Strong’s 4012)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 28 Jan 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G4012&
amp;t=KJV >

and…

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for ergazomai
(Strong’s 2038)”. Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 28 Jan 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G2038&
amp;t=KJV >


Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for pinnah (Strong’s 6438)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 26 Jun 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H6438&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for tanah (Strong’s 8567)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 26 Jun 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H8567&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for yowm (Strong’s 3117)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 26 Jun 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H3117&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for boulomai (Strong’s 1014)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 1 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G1014&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for thelo (Strong’s 2309)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 1 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G2309&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for erchomai (Strong’s 2064)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 3 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G2064&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for oikema (Strong’s 3612)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 17 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G3612&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for lashown (Strong’s 3956)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 19 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H3956&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for hostis (Strong’s 3748)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 23 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G3748&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for hosos (Strong’s 3745)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 23 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G3745&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for hosper (Strong’s 3746)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 23 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G3746&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for ei tis (Strong’s 1536)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 23 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G1536&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for tis (Strong’s 5100)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 23 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G5100&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for medeis (Strong’s 3367)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 23 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G3367&
amp;t=KJV >

(See A Critical Lexicon And Concordance To The English And Greek New Testament by E. W. Bullinger pg. 525)

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for anthropinos (Strong’s 442)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 23 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G442&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for ktisis (Strong’s 2937)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 23 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G2937&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for ek (Strong’s 1537)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 24 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G1537&
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for pistis (Strong’s 4102)”.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2020. 24 Jul 2020.
< http:// www.blbclassic.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G4102&
amp;t=KJV >



Thanks go to Blue Letter Bible and Internet Archive and The Cornell University Library for providing public domain material.


From “Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible” by E. W. Bullinger,
(Public Domain) pag
es 613656. Adapted for website compatibility.
See original at link.     
Stream           Download.
.


figuresofspeechinthebible.net © 2013-2020. All rights reserved. Material in public domain may be freely copied and distributed without charge for educational, non-commercial purposes. This website, and those referenced by this site as sources of public domain material, are to be referenced. Material that is not in public domain, and indicated as such, is the property of its rightful owner(s), and/or originator.