Rom 9:1-33 KJV

1 I say the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience also bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost,

2 That I have great heaviness and continual sorrow in my heart.
(Cataploce 475)

3 For I could wish that myself were accursed from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh:
(Hyperbole 428; Cataploce 475 [see also Epitrechon 474 and Euche 920])

4 Who are Israelites; to whom [pertaineth] the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service [of God], and the promises;
(Polysyndeton 224)

5 Whose [are] the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ [came], who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.
(Heterosis 531)

6 Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they [are] not all Israel, which are of Israel:
(Antanaclasis 291; Prolepsis 980)

7 Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, [are they] all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called.

(Gnome; Gen. 21:12)

8 That is, They which are the children of the fleshM , these [are] not the children of God: but the children of the promiseM are counted for the seed.

(MetonymyM 585)

9 For this [is] the word of promiseGc , At this time will I come, and Sara shall have a son.
(Gnome; Genitive caseGc 999)

10 And not only [this]; but when Rebecca also had conceived by one, [even] by our father Isaac;
(Ellipsis 102)

11 (For [the children] being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth;)

12 It was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.

13 As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but EsauM have I hated.
(MetonymyM 544 and 608)

14 What shall we say then? [Is there] unrighteousness with God? God forbid.
(Prolepsis 981)

15 For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.
(Prolepsis 981)

16 So then [it is] not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.
(Ellipsis 50)

17 For the scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might shew my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth.

18 Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will [have mercy], and whom he will he hardeneth*.
(Paronomasia 319 listen to audio on Google; Idioma* 824)

19 Thou* wilt say then unto me, Why doth he yet find fault? For who hath resisted his will?
(Apostrophe* 904; Anteisagoge 964; Prolepsis 981)

20 Nay but, O man*, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed [it], Why hast thou made me thus?
(Prosopopœia 866; Apostrophe* 904; Epitemesis 931; Anteisagoge 964)

21 Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?
(Anteisagoge 964)

22 [What] if God, willing to shew [his] wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction:
(Ellipsis 54//Anantapodoton)

23 And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory,
(Anthropopatheia 893)

24 Even us, whom he hath called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles?(Ellipsis 54)

25 As he saith also in Osee, I will call them my people, which were not my people; and her beloved, which was not beloved.

26 And it shall come to pass, [that] in the place where it was said unto them, Ye [are] not my people; there shall they be called the children of the living God.
(Pleonasm 413)

27 Esaias also crieth concerning Israel, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved:
(Parœmia 758; Gnome 790 see Isa. 10:22-23; Gnome 795 see LXX)

28 For he will finish the work, and cut [it] short in righteousness: because a short work will the Lord make upon the earth.
(Gnome 790 see Isa. 10:22-23)

29 And as Esaias said before, Except the Lord of Sabaoth had left us a seed, we had been as Sodoma, and been made like unto Gomorrha.
(Gnome 790 see Isa. 1:9 and compare Gnome 795; see also Gal. 3:16)

30 What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, which followed not after righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith.
(Anadiplosis 255)

31 But Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness, hath not attained to the lawofrighteousness.
(Hypallage 537)

32 Wherefore? Because [they sought it] not by faith, but as it were by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumblingstoneA;
(Simile 729; AnthropopatheiaA 897)

33 As it is written, Behold, I lay in Sion a stumblingstoneA and rock of offence: and whosoeverS believeth on him shall not be ashamed.
(Synonymia 333; SynecdocheS 618; Gnome 795; 799 see also Isa. 28:16 and 8:14 ; AnthropopatheiaA 897)

Verse 4 Polysyndeton: here a number of nouns pertaining to biblical Israel are held together by the conjunction “and”, (καὶ) to form a whole.
Verse 5 Heterosis: “for ever ”, αἰῶνας; ages, plural. 
Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for 
aiōn (Strong’s 165)“.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2018. 2 Sep 2018.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Verse 6 Antanaclasis: the first use of the word Israel in the verse refers to the spiritual Israel, the second to the carnal Israel.

Prolepsis: the objection of Israel being cast off and rejected is anticipated and handled by Paul before it could be presented. God has not cast off Israel any more than He has cast off the Gentiles. To those who accept His grace, His mercy endureth forever!
(see also verses 14 and 15)

Verse 8 Dr. Bullinger indicates the children of the promise being a Metonymy
in that the promise here means those who believe and receive the promise. If this is the case, then the children of the flesh would also be a Metonymy, meaning those who did not
or do not believe and receive the promise. Furthermore, there is antithesis presented here via juxtaposing the will of God and the will of man. The will of man and the flesh being evident in Abraham trying to bring to pass the promise of God through his own doing (works of the flesh).
See Gen. 15:1-21 (the will and promise of God) versus Gen. 16:1-16 (the will of man).

Verse 9 see Genitive case 999, and Gen. 17.

Verse 10 see Ellipsis, page 102.

Verses 27-29 are not an exact quote of Isaiah, therefore Dr. Bullinger considers this a Gnome.
Verse 27 Remnant: ὑπόλειμμα, (Noun – Nominative Neuter Singular)
Romans 9:27-29.
Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for shĕ’ar (Strong’s 7605)“.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2018. 9 Sep 2018.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Verse 31 Hypallage: lawofrighteousness/righteousness of the law.

Verse 32 Simile: The full post and comment thread for the following excerpt can be found at Facebook in the group Figures Of Speech In The Bible. Click the word “Comments” and then also “see More”.
My thanks to Allen, Jodi, and everyone that contributed to a better understanding of this verse.

Allen Harris “With a Simile, you must ask yourself What is being compared? Romans, beginning with chapter one, one of the most emphasized contexts throughout the previous eight chapters is regarding “Faith” which is defined as Believing God. Believing emanates from the heart. (compare Cain and Abel). The comparison is between the Works of the Law and Believing God. The key is Jesus Christ himself who did all of the required works of the law for us and in our place, and furthermore completed or finished the law. (which was a shadow of things to come). This is why Galations says “… before faith came …”
Just going through the actions required by the law was empty without understanding and believing the prophecies regarding the messiah. Everything pointed to the coming of the Christ.
The works of the law was empty without the hope of the first coming. This was the stumblingstone”.


Verse 33 Synonymia: “stumblingstone” and “rock of offense” have similar, not identical, meanings.
stumblingstone from lithos (G3037) and proskomma, πρόσκομμα (G4348).
rock of offense from Petra,
πέτρα (G4073) and skandalon, σκάνδαλον (G4625).

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for lithos (Strong’s 3037)“.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2018. 16 Sep 2018.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for proskomma
(Strong’s 4348)
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2018. 16 Sep 2018.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for petra (Strong’s 4073)“.
Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2018. 16 Sep 2018.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for skandalon (Strong’s 4625)“. Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2018. 16 Sep 2018.
< http://
amp;t=KJV >

Thanks go to Blue Letter Bible and Internet Archive and The Cornell University Library  for providing public domain material.

Thanks also to E. W. Bullinger for his work
Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible, and thanks to you for taking the time here.
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